Narrative theorists

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Vladimir Propp

  • 8 characters.
    The hero (seeks something)
    The villain (opposes the hero)
    The helper (gives support to the hero)
    The doner (helps the hero by providing a majoc object)
    The dispatcher (sends the hero on his way)
    The false hero (falsely assuming the role of the hero)
    The princess (reward for the hero, needs protection from the villain)
    The princess' father
  • 31 functions- functions summarised below.
    Preparation- the scene is set
    Complication- a problem occurs/some evil takes place
    Transference- the hero receives help + goes on his way/quest
    Struggle- there's a fight
    Return- the hero succeeds in his mission
    Recognition- villain punished + hero rewarded
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Vladimir Propp

My music video does fit in with this theory.

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Tzvetan Todorov

Certain stages/transformations in a story.

1. A state of equilibrium- all is in order.

2. A disruption of the ordered state by an event.

3. A recognition that a disruption has taken place.

4. An attempt to repair the damage of the distuption.

5. A return to some kind of equilibrium or new order.

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Tzvetan Todorov

My music video does fit with this theory.

1. A state of equilibrium- all is in order.

She's asleep in her bed.






5. A return to some kind of equilibrium or new order.


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Roland Barthes

5 different cosed which activate the reader to make sense of it.

Action code: indicates the next logical step.
Packing a suitcase=going away.

Semic code: Denotation

Symbolic code: Connotation.

Enigma code: a puzzle for the audience to solve
          Murderers hand in the opening scene= who does it belong to?

Cultural code: a narrative device used to allow the audience to recognise it's part of the culture.
          James Bond= Martini

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Roland Barthes

Does fit with my music video.

Action Code: needle= inject herself

Semic Code: graveyard= death

Symbolic Code: injecting herself= addiction

Enigma: At the end when they both part= has she died or not?

Cultural: drug use within teenagers.

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Claude Levi-Strauss

We make sense of the world, people and events by seeing and using binary opposites everywhere. There must be some sort of conflict.

My music video does fit.

Life vs. death
Clean vs. drugs
Boy vs. girl
Happy vs. sad

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Narrative theory

Narrative: The story is the events that take place. The plot is the order of these events. The story is the narrative and the plot.

Open: Questions remain unanswered.

Non linear/fractured: Out of order (flashbacks)

Single stranded: One storyline in the media text.

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