identification is the process which charcaters align part of their own identidy which the characters in the text , putting themselves in the characters place.

the narrator : tells the story. manages the relationship between the audience and the narrative.may comment on the material.

first person narrative ; when i is used. we are immediately drawn into the story. helps the audience to identfify with the character.

third person narrative : when he \she \ it is used we as an audience become detached and alienated from the narrative. we are now impartial observers.

voice over : like a commentator. provides the audience with their view or angle on things however more provides information. star endorsement is used with a very distinct voice.

absent narrator. no narrator but angles or shots are used to point the angle at something.

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a variety of narrative structures :

  • linear : events which happen in a chronoligical manner.
  • non -linear : events which are altered and do not happen in chronological manner  there are flashbacks and flash forwards.
  • circular: narrative is working around a time frame, in the end nothing has changed.
  • open ended narrative : where we as an audiencer are left with no conclusion and are left to imagine our own conclusion.
  • closed narrative : where there is a conclusion at the end and the audience are left felling secured , reassured.
  • interactive structure : programmes such as big brother were as an audience play along with the narrative.
  • a split screen narrative : two narratives or more are beig played out. usings the screem
  • an episodic narrative : when shorter tales are being told. they may have similar charcters and themes.
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todorov theory

todorov is a media theorist that suggests the narrative si understood through the story process and structure.

narratives are led in cause and effect fomat.

this theory was endorsed by bordwell and thompsons who defined narrative as a chain of events.

he believes narrative is in linear order.

  • strarts with an equilibrium ( perhaps social, moral or physological ) where everything is in balance
  • an action /character disrupts the equilibrium and a twist has started.
  • there is an act to restore the equilibruium
  • the narrative moves to climax/confrontation
  • a resolution is achieved either through violence or villian is captured
  • a new equilibrium is started.

however theory does not always apply

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propp's theory

vladmir propp was a russian scholar who claimed that the audiences understnading of the narrative was established through understanding of charcater roles and functions 

the hero : the main protagnist who seeks something.

the villain : opposes the hero and disrupts the seeking . its known as antagonist

donor : offers the hero information, advice or an object.

false hero : falsely assumes the role of the hero .

helper: gives suppourt or help to hero in order to restore the equilibrium.

princess : reward for the hero and object for villians plot.

princess's father ; rewards hero for his efforts

3 functions 

the hero is introduced as a unquie person

hero and villian join in direct combact 

the hero marries and ascends the throne 

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Claude Levi strauss

french media theorist who belived stories are the expression of deep myths.

opposing value are which drive the narrative forward and keeps audience engaged. known as binary oppsoites.

audiences are positioned to favour one side.





b/o can help establish the hero and villian very quickly.

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