Marengo to Amiens
Marengo (June 1800)
reasons- easy access, Habsburg pressure, royalist threat, justify being 1st consul
smaller army but vicotorious- jusitified 1st consul
Treaty of Lunéville (Feb 1801)
between austria and france- end of second coalition, gained land in italy and germany
Treaty of Amiens (March 1802) (End of second coalition)
reasons- Britian wanted to end war, marengo, loss of allies, lack of resources
treaty broke down when British failed to leave malta and france hollland
Redeclared war May 1803
Naval Conflict with England
Difficulties- Focussed on continental warfare, Eygptian campaign failed.
Reasons- 3rd coalition, Napoleon claimed crown of Italy, violation of treaties
Battle of Trafalgar (Oct 1805) - British victory - stabalised 3rd coalition
3rd Coalition (1805-1808)
- Russia, Britian, Austria, Naples, Sweden and Prussia
Breakdown of coalition
- Battle of Austerlitz (December 1805)- Defeated Russia (Frozen Lakes)- forced Prussia into war- led to treaty of Pressburg
- Treaty of Pressburg (December 1805)- Austria withdrew from coalition, end of Holly Roman Empire
- Jena and Auerstadt- twin defeats of Prussia- Russia alone to fight France
- Battle of Eylou (February 1807)- victory against Russia- ended 3rd- tilsit
The Continental System
Reasons- defeat Britain, Britian supplied coalitions, france needed help to deafeat
Started by Berlin Decrees (November 1806)- Gb responded with Orders-in-council
Russia joined after first treaty of tilsit (July 1807) and Prussia after second
Strengthened by Milan decrees and Fountianebleau Decree (1810) which extended seizures all over empire
Success- Worsened british economy- flooded with unsold good
Failure- not consistantly enforced, smuggling, licences to allow trade, continent needed British goods (textiles), customs officials could be bribed, GB exported to americas, damaged France
Aims- protect gains, export reforms,give oppressed liberty, ensure end of old regimes
Napoleon told Kings that Civil code would strengthen power
Establishing empire- (started 1804) annexed states (e.g. tuscany) + satellite states (e.g. switzerland)
Pinnacle of empire- 1805/7
Annexed- forced to accept reforms (Spain rebelled), subjected to central authority, created new monarchs etc
Satellite- lack of control produced instability, allowed to keep own government, reforms not spread.
Decline of Empire
Spanish Ulcer (Peninsular War, 1808)
Joseph made king of Spain- revolt against French rule
Spainish (with British help) force French out and defeat at Toulouse in April 1814
Effects- not popular, harmed reputation, expensive
Defeat of Austria- Napoleon left spain for Danube valley- scoreless war with victories on both sides
Divorce of josephine (end of 1809)- no heir- married neice of marie aintoinette (daughter of austrian emperor) Marie-Louise- Austria and France allied- unpopular
Invasion of Russia (1812)- not enforcing continental system- scorced earth policy- won Battle of Borodino- progressed to Moscow- already destroyed- forced to retreat- Russians destroyed bridges- managed to escape- huge loss of life- show napoleon's bad planning (summer clothes/not enough food)
Decline of Empire
Fourth Coalition (1813-1815)
members- Russia, prussia, Britain,Austria.
Coalition victory in Battle of the Nations (Leipzig)
Coalition vowed to remain peaceful until France defeated (Treaty of Vienna)
Effects- france wanted to end wars, coalition entered Paris and restored bourbon King (March 1814), napoleon abdicated
Restoration of Monarchy
Helped by 4th coalition- accepted some revolutionary ideas (biens nationaux) but attempted to restore old regime- established 2 chamber government- rumours caused unpopularity and seemed indecisive.
Elba exile- take advantage of ill feelings towards monarch, promised new beginning and restoration of liberty- returned March 1815- Louis XVIII fled to Belgium
Hundred days- new elections ordered- lafayette elected, bourgeoisie reluctant to support, strong popular support, revolutionary (Acte Additionnel), Waterloo
Acte Additionnel- replaced charter of 1814 by Louis- wanted offer more/defend liberty- declared bourbon monarchy unconstitutional, retained 2 chamber parliament, incorporated liberal reform (freedom of the press). Effects- Bourgeoisie preferred voting by tax, revolutionaries disliked hereditary peerage, west close to civil war, Napoleon seen as liberal, North/south remained royalist.
Battle of Waterloo- Napoleon defeated Prussia (June 1815) hoped to restore empire- defeated and france lost more land.
Second Restoration and End of Napoleon
- Reasons- waterloo, napoleon gave self up to british- imprisoned on st Helena
- Supporters disarmed and some exiled
- White Terror in Rhone Valley
- Bonaparte dynasty excluded from French throne
- Reasons- napoleon liked propaganda, to be read, present france, and achievements well. Napoleon as saint.
- First published year after death (1822)- Mémoriale de St Heléne- conversations
M.Lyons- Continenal system failed due to reasons out of napoleon's control
P.Kennedy- Security of Britain caused collapse of the empire.