Science Revision For Year 9

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 24-04-13 21:03

Speed and Stream Line Shapes

Speed = distance divided by time

Distance = speed x time

 Time = distance divided by speed

The more streamlined a shape is the faster it can go because it can cut through the air. For example a cone.

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Food Groups

Carbohydrates- Gives us energy.

Fat- To keep us warm.

Protein- For Muscles.

Vitamins- to help your immune system and helps metabolic processes.

Minerals- Metabolic processes.

Fibre- Helps digestive system.

Water- To hydrate our bodies.

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Respiration

Respiration Equation:

Glucose + Oxygen goes to Carbon dioxide + water + energy

C6 H12 O6+O2 goes to co2+H2o+Energy

Glucose and oxygen combine in the cells to make energy.

We use fat when were low on energy.

Aerobic respiration = presence of o2

anaerobic = absence of o2 which can make lactic acid.

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The skeleton

-The Skull              -Pelvis

-Jaw bone              -Radius(front of arm bone)

-Shoulder blades   -Ulna(Back of arm bone)

-Collar bone            -Femur (thigh)

-Breast bone           -Knee cap

-Rib cage                 -Fibula (front leg bone)

-Back bone               -Tibia (back leg bone)

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Joints

Joints give us support, Protection, movement and where blood cells are made.

Types of joints are:             Synovial Joints:

  • Ball + Socket- Shoulder  Most joints are synovial and contain
  • Hinge -Elbow                 synovial fluid and help lubricate.
  • Fixed -Skull                   e.g ball and socket,gliding & hinge
  • Gliding -Fingers              joints.
  • Pivot -Neck
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Muscles

Muscles are used to move our bones at joints. A muscle can only pull.

The two main muscles:

Bicep- is on the top of the bone.

Tricep- is underneath the bone.

When a muscle contrasts it goes short and fat. When a bicep contrasts the tricep relaxes.

 

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Metals from metal orges

Metals come from rocks called metal orges.

  • Malachite-  Copper 

Cu2CO3(OH)2

  • Galena- Lead
  • Haematite-Iron

Fe2O3

  • Bauxite-aluminium

Al2O3

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The Reactivity series

The reactivity series shows how reactive metals are:

1.Potassium     7.Iron             1.Please            7.In

2.Sodium        8.Lead             2.Send             8.large

3.Calcium        9.Copper          3.Charlie's        9.Crates

4.Magnesium   10.Silver          4.Monkeys        10.Secretly

5.Aluminium     11.Gold            5.And               11.Guarded

6.Zinc                                    6.Zebras

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Displacement Reations

Copperoxide+Zinc goes to Zinc oxide + Copper

CuO+Zn goes to ZnO+Cu

because Zinc is higher in the reactivity series it goes to Zinc oxide + Copper.

Copperoxide+Magnesium goes to Magnesium  oxide + Copper.

CuO+mg goes to mgO+Cu

because Magnesium is higher in the reactivity series it goes to Magnesium oxide+Copper.

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Metal and acid reactions

Metal+acid goes to salt+Hydrogen

Magnesium+Hydrochloric acid goes to magnesium chloride + Hydrogen

Element made of 1 type of atom.

Mixture made of 2 types of atom not banded together.

Compound made of 2 or more atoms banded together.

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Cells

In our  bodys we have cells which is made of cytoplasm, the nucleus  and the cell membrane.

Then we have tissue which makes the organ which is part of a organ system.

In a plant cell its different there is:

The cell wall      The Vacuole     Cytoplasm

Nucleus              Chloroplast     

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Organ Systems

The Digestive System-To break up food.

The Respiratory System-For breathing and the lungs.

The Urinary System

The Circulatory System-To get blood around the body.

The Nervous System-Controls the body.

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Lungs and Breathing

Key Words: trachea,Lung,Intercosta muscles,Bronchiole,Bronchus,Alveolus,Diaphragm,Heart,Ribcage  

Inhalation:

Diaphragm contrasts down.      Lungs forced down.       air pressure is low 

                                                                                     inside and high out.

 

Exhalation:

Diaphragm contrasts up.           Lungs forced up.        air pressure is high

                                                                                      inside.

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Alveoli and blood diffusion

Adaptations:

 

Moist Lining-aids diffusion.  

thin walls-Less of a barrier.  

Rich blood supply-Lots of space. 

Large surface area- more area for exchange.

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The Heart

Key Words:

The Vena Cava         Aorta         Pulmonary Vein       

Pulmonary artery     Tricuspid Valve    Right atrium  

Right ventricle       left Ventricle    Biscuspid Valve   

Left Atrium 

The blood starts in the arm travels through the Vena cava into the right atrium through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle up the pulmonary artery into the lungs where blood diffusion happens. It then travels in the pulmonary vein into the heart and left atrium and out the aorta.

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Effects of Smoking

Cigarettes contain Tobacco and nicotine.

Positive Effects are : helps to relax and it gets rid of hunger.

Negative Effects are:

  • Lung cancer
  • Highly Addictive
  • Yellow nails
  • Speeds up heart rate
  • heart disease
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Circuits

Series Circuit:

  • current travels around the circuit.
  • If the circuit is broken the bulb goes off.
  • If you add a second bulb the first bulb will become dimmer.
  • With more batteries its brighter.
  • The more components you add the more resistance there is in the circuit.

Parallel Circuits:

  • When the power is equal to both bulbs.
  • If one bulb goes off the other one will stay lit.
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Day and Night

It takes 24 hours for the earth to make one turn on its axis, so a day is 24 hours long.

As the Earth spins we go from shadow to light back to shadow.Its night time in the uk when were facing away from the sun.

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The Seasons

The Earth has the Northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. The earth is tilted on its axis at 23.5 degrees,in summer the Earth is tilted towards the sun so its hotter. In winter earth is tilted away from the sun.heat is spread over a larger area so its colder.

 

The northern and southern hemisphere have different seasons at different times.

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The Solar System

The Sun

Mercury      Neptune  

Venus          Pluto

Earth

Mars

Jupiter

Saturn

Uranus

 

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Comets,meteors and asteroids

Comets are made in a oort cloud. They are made ofmainly ice. They are 1km across in size and have a tail which points away from the sun.

Meteors- they are called meteorites when they hit the ground. made from stone and iron.Are heated by friction.Less than 100km in size

Asteroids-Move slowly around the sun and are smaller than 1km in diameter.They are big rocks.lots of asteroids orbit the sun.

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