Muslims 1144-1169

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 27-12-19 09:16


  • Sunni govenor of Mosul, the first Muslim ruler to present himself as Jihad's leader.
  • He was striving to spread Islam- this normally required the Caliph's authority.
  • Zengi claimed that the Muslim world needed to be united under 1 ruler then fight.
  • The caliph would be the symbolic head, but Zengi would govern. 
  • Jihad is greater (internal) and lesser (external). It needed a pious leader. 
  • He created a principality in Syria and Iraq by 1146.
  • The Franks allied against him with the Damascene Turks, atabeg Muin al-Din Unur. 
  • The Seljuk and  Artuqid Turks (at Diyr Bakr) limited his territory in Aleppo and Mosul.
  • The Franks and Byzantines attacked his land, John Comnenus almost conquered Shaizar.
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  • Count Joscelin II of Edessa allied with the Artuqids of Diyr Bakr.
  • 1144, Joscelin was helping his ally so Zengi attacked to remove two enemies.
  • He also needed to attack Christians to restore his reputation for jihad, since he fought Muslims.
  • In 1139, he had taken Ba'albek from a Muslim ruler and executed all the prisoners he promised to free. This made him unpopular and unpious.
  • His territory was vulnerable to the Franks and Aleppo and Shaizar paid tribute to them. 
  • November 1144, segied by tunelling and seige towers on the walls.
  • 23rd December, Zengi burnt the tunnels and collapsed the walls.
  • It was entered and captured at Christmas, killing 15k Franks. 
  • This restored his reputation and inspired him to also take Suruc in 1145.
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Nur al-Din Power

  • 1146, Zengi was stabbed by one of his Frankish slaves and his sons took over.
  • Sayf al-Din Ghazi inherited Mosul and NAD Aleppo, near the Frankish border.
  • NAD wanted to unite Syria under one ruler, and reduce the threat of the Franks. 
  • He was a pious leader and rebuilt Medina's walls to show this. 
  • When he conquered Damascus, it becacme the centre of Jihad propoganda. 
  • NAD pilgramaged to Mecca in 1161 and he emphasised the importance of Jerusalem.
  • He improved education in religious schools
  • He attacked the Seljuks in Asia Minor to stop a Byzantine alliance. 
  • However, the Caliph of Bagadad said he killed too many Muslims. 
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Nur al-Din Victories

  • Franks grew under B3 and Amalric. He also lost to the Franks in 1163 at al-Buqay'a.
  • 1156, NAD agreed upon a treaty which shared Harenc, stopping an ongoing dispute.
  • 1157, repelled an attack on Shaizar. 1164, defeated Christians at Artah, taking Harenc.
  • He could turn on his allies- 1159, Manuel Comnenus threatened Aleppo with invasion.
  • NAD joined Manuel against Kilij Arslan, Sultun of Rum. 
  • He was the first to unite Damascus and Aleppo against the Franks.
  • Zengi was less focussed on the Franks since his territory was further away.
  • 1148, he releived Damascus and stopped the 2nd crusade. 
  • He captured Prince Reynald of Antioch for 16 years and killed Prince Raymond.
  • 1157, he defeated B3 and the Hospitallers at Banyas. 
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NAD and the Franks

  • Anitoch was NAD's closest threat, so he allied with the Seljuk Sultun of Rum. 
  • They captured Hab and Kefer Lata near Aleppo, leading to the battle of Inab. 
  • Afterwards, he campaigned in Antioch before treatying with the Franks.
  • He captured Apemea, Akbara and Artesai from Antioch and Tortosa castle. 
  • NAD now had control of the Orontes, and stopped an Edessan uprising in 1146.
  • NAD ordered them to surrender or leave- 30k were killed.
  • He then subdued the rest of Edessa's towns with the sultun of Rum by 1151.
  • By this time, the Franks and Byzantines could not invade by Edessa so he could unify Syria.
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NAD and Syria: NAD and Egypt

  • 1149, Sayf named NAD as his heir, but it was given to another brother.
  • NAD was given Homs and started to consolidate land in the South.
  • Mu'in al-Din, ruler of Damascus, had died and Abeq formed an alliance with the Franks against NAD but the inhabitants invited him in. He married the previous ruler's daughter.
  • 1154, Abeq was disposed of and the Franks retreated.
  • Finally, NAD took Ba'albek to unite the majority of Muslim Syria. 
  • His commander was Shirkuh and his nephew Saladin was second in command. 
  • Shirkuh captured Alexandria but he reached a stalemate and promised to leave in 1167.
  • 1168, the Franks seized Bilbies and massacred its inhabitants.
  • Shawar turned to NAD for help, so Amalric withdrew. 
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NAD and Egypt

  • 1169, Shirkuh entered Cairo and positioned himself as Shawar's replacement as vizier. 
  • Shawar was murdered on January 18th and Shirkuh became vizier. He was poisoned in March and Saladin replaced him. NAD should have been happy since his land increased.
  • He did not fight the Franks yet since Saladin wanted to rule Egypt alone. 
  • NAD placed his family in important positions- his brother Turan-Shah and his father Ayyub. 
  • He created a military corp, the Salhiyya, directly loyal to him. Saladin would fight on shared campaigns and leave before NAD arrived to consolidate his land. He refused to give tribute.
  • NAD died on his way to fight Saladin in 1174. 
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Frankish defeats

  • 1119, the Field of Blood. Roger of Antioch was killed, huge Muslim victory.
  • Il-ghazi led the attack but did not take weakened Antioch since it still had strong fortifications and he did not have the men and time to garrison it.
  • B2 and a Tripoli army counter-attacked in August, Frankish defeat again.
  • Roger did not have an heir so B2 acted a regent, weakening morale. 
  • 1149, Inab, NAD conquered Antioch with Unar of Damascus. 
  • Prince Raymond was killed in the night, without an heir. 
  • NAD wanted a road to attack Damascus, not attack the Franks. Inab fell. 
  • NAD did not conquer Antioch but he weakened it and demanded a treaty.
  • 1164, Harim, NAD defeated Bohemond III, Raymond III of Tripoli and Joselin of Courtney. 
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