Muslims 1095-1144

  • Created by: mrevv
  • Created on: 26-12-19 13:11

Muslim divisions

  • Sunni Seljuk Turks, Shia Egyptian Fatmids. 
  • They had different claims to Muhammad's sucessor.
  • Shia Muslims believe that only Muhammed was the leader of Islam, and the Caliph Fatmids beleived they were descended from his son in law, Ali. They ruled with a vizier.
  • By 969, they had established an Empire in Eypt, Syria and Palestine.
  • Sunni Muslims beleive in following Sharia law and Sunna (the prohpet's customs).
  • Thier leader was a caliph, then sultans. 
  • They ruled Iran, Iraq, Syria, Cilicia, Anatolia and Palestine. 
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  • 1092 Malik Shah died along with his vizier, Nizam al-Mulk. 1094, the Egyptian caliph al-Mustansir and vizier Badr al-Jamali also died. This caused sucession crises.
  • al-Jamali's death halted Fatmid advances into Palestine, but they took Jerusalem in 1098.
  • They were not going to co-operate, both sides wanted personal gain. 
  • Malik Shah's empire was divided by Atabegs, and the Seljuk Empire disintegreated.
  • Shah's hier to Aleppo, Ridwan, was very unpopular. The atabeg of Mosul wanted to attack Aleppo. Ridwan's brother Duqaq of Damascus opposed Ridwan conquering Syria.
  • The emir of Antioch joined Duqaq to fight Ridwan. Malik Shah's brother was killed in the fight.
  • Atabegs wanted to establish sultanates, so they were divided. 
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  • Seljuk Sultan of Rum, surrounded by Byzantines and Turks.
  • Nicaea was his capital, attacked in 1097 by the people's crusade and the real crusade.
  • Arslan underestimated the crusade and used the same tactics on each attack.
  • He didn't attack each contingent as it arrived. They had 75k knights and 50k infantry.
  • The crusaders used blockades and seige engines. They also had time to plan stratergy.
  • Arslan arrived during the seige from fighting Danishmned Turks, gave up and fled South. 
  • The Nicaeans surrendered to the Byzantine ships. 
  • Arslan was tired, lacking troops, impoverished and lost his family and capital. 
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  • 1097, Arslan united with the Danishmned Emir to attack contingents.
  • They ambushed the crusaders at Doryleum, but they held thier ground.
  • When Godfrey arrived to releive the crusaders, Arslan was defeated and left. 
  • This shattered his reputation as a strong Sultan.
  • The Byzantines occupied his old territory including Nicaea.
  • Turkish losses were 3k which meant the crusaders could continue through tiredness, heat, hunger and thirst. They also knew how the Turks fought so they would beat them in future.
  • By the time they started to work together, it was too late. 
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  • Seiged from 1097-8, Duqaq led a releif force with his atabeg and the emir of Homs.
  • Bohemond of Taranto kept his cavalry in formation.
  • 12k under Ridwan of Aleppo arrived in 1098 on horseback.
  • The seige would only have infantry if they succeeded, but Bohemond used a surprise cavalry.
  • The Muslims retreated to Harim and counter-attacked in May 1098.
  • 35k Turks arrived to end the seige, but they wasted time trying to take Edessa from Baldwin.
  • There was still divisions in the Turkish army and Ridwan did not join in.
  • Kerbogha made poor decisions such as spreading his men out instead of concentrating attack.
  • 1098, the Fatmids proposed the crusaders asking for peace, so they were no help. 
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  • Little opposition from Arabs, Turks and Egyptians on the way to Jerusalem.
  • Rivalry grew between Aleppo and Damascus, who wanted to fight each other.
  • Arab emirs in Shazier, Homs and Hamah did not want to help either Sunni/Shia.
  • Native Syrians were Shia, but thier leaders were Sunni Seljuk.
  • Muslim towns preferred to negotiate than fight- Homs gave money for safety.
  • Towns such as Shazier even helped the crusaders by showing them territory.
  • The Fatmids had negotaited about Jerusalem but they did not send an army until 1099.
  • The Fatmids had just conquered Jerusalem from the Seljuks, and did not have time to refortify it. Thier seige engines were dissembled and hidden (found by crusaders.)
  • 1099, the Fatmids made a peace offer, to let 200 enter as pilgrims. This was refused.
  • By attacking on two fronts, the crusaders divided the Fatmids, so they were overcome.
  • Vizier al-Adfal arrived with 20k too late and they were caught by suprise at Ascalon.
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