- Created by: mrevv
- Created on: 26-12-19 13:11
- Sunni Seljuk Turks, Shia Egyptian Fatmids.
- They had different claims to Muhammad's sucessor.
- Shia Muslims believe that only Muhammed was the leader of Islam, and the Caliph Fatmids beleived they were descended from his son in law, Ali. They ruled with a vizier.
- By 969, they had established an Empire in Eypt, Syria and Palestine.
- Sunni Muslims beleive in following Sharia law and Sunna (the prohpet's customs).
- Thier leader was a caliph, then sultans.
- They ruled Iran, Iraq, Syria, Cilicia, Anatolia and Palestine.
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- 1092 Malik Shah died along with his vizier, Nizam al-Mulk. 1094, the Egyptian caliph al-Mustansir and vizier Badr al-Jamali also died. This caused sucession crises.
- al-Jamali's death halted Fatmid advances into Palestine, but they took Jerusalem in 1098.
- They were not going to co-operate, both sides wanted personal gain.
- Malik Shah's empire was divided by Atabegs, and the Seljuk Empire disintegreated.
- Shah's hier to Aleppo, Ridwan, was very unpopular. The atabeg of Mosul wanted to attack Aleppo. Ridwan's brother Duqaq of Damascus opposed Ridwan conquering Syria.
- The emir of Antioch joined Duqaq to fight Ridwan. Malik Shah's brother was killed in the fight.
- Atabegs wanted to establish sultanates, so they were divided.
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- Seljuk Sultan of Rum, surrounded by Byzantines and Turks.
- Nicaea was his capital, attacked in 1097 by the people's crusade and the real crusade.
- Arslan underestimated the crusade and used the same tactics on each attack.
- He didn't attack each contingent as it arrived. They had 75k knights and 50k infantry.
- The crusaders used blockades and seige engines. They also had time to plan stratergy.
- Arslan arrived during the seige from fighting Danishmned Turks, gave up and fled South.
- The Nicaeans surrendered to the Byzantine ships.
- Arslan was tired, lacking troops, impoverished and lost his family and capital.
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- 1097, Arslan united with the Danishmned Emir to attack contingents.
- They ambushed the crusaders at Doryleum, but they held thier ground.
- When Godfrey arrived to releive the crusaders, Arslan was defeated and left.
- This shattered his reputation as a strong Sultan.
- The Byzantines occupied his old territory including Nicaea.
- Turkish losses were 3k which meant the crusaders could continue through tiredness, heat, hunger and thirst. They also knew how the Turks fought so they would beat them in future.
- By the time they started to work together, it was too late.
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- Seiged from 1097-8, Duqaq led a releif force with his atabeg and the emir of Homs.
- Bohemond of Taranto kept his cavalry in formation.
- 12k under Ridwan of Aleppo arrived in 1098 on horseback.
- The seige would only have infantry if they succeeded, but Bohemond used a surprise cavalry.
- The Muslims retreated to Harim and counter-attacked in May 1098.
- 35k Turks arrived to end the seige, but they wasted time trying to take Edessa from Baldwin.
- There was still divisions in the Turkish army and Ridwan did not join in.
- Kerbogha made poor decisions such as spreading his men out instead of concentrating attack.
- 1098, the Fatmids proposed the crusaders asking for peace, so they were no help.
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- Little opposition from Arabs, Turks and Egyptians on the way to Jerusalem.
- Rivalry grew between Aleppo and Damascus, who wanted to fight each other.
- Arab emirs in Shazier, Homs and Hamah did not want to help either Sunni/Shia.
- Native Syrians were Shia, but thier leaders were Sunni Seljuk.
- Muslim towns preferred to negotiate than fight- Homs gave money for safety.
- Towns such as Shazier even helped the crusaders by showing them territory.
- The Fatmids had negotaited about Jerusalem but they did not send an army until 1099.
- The Fatmids had just conquered Jerusalem from the Seljuks, and did not have time to refortify it. Thier seige engines were dissembled and hidden (found by crusaders.)
- 1099, the Fatmids made a peace offer, to let 200 enter as pilgrims. This was refused.
- By attacking on two fronts, the crusaders divided the Fatmids, so they were overcome.
- Vizier al-Adfal arrived with 20k too late and they were caught by suprise at Ascalon.
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