Music key words

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Pulse

beat of the music

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Time signature

simple and compound time: 2/4 3/4

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Regular rhythms

made up of regular groups

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irregular groups

do not fit into the usual rhythmic patterns

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Augmentation

the note-lengths of the original melody are made longer

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Diminution

the note-lengths of the original melody are shortenend

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Hemiola

rhythm has three against metrical feel.

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Cross rhythm

when two different rhythms are played together at the same time

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Syncoption

when a composer changes the usual stress of the beats in the bar

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polyrhythmic

when two or more different rhythms are played at the same time

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Diatonic

will only use notes from the same scale

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Chromatic

uses black notes in scale

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Dissonant

clashes and sounds uncomfortable

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Consonant

doesn't clash

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pedal note

sustained or repeated note

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Drone

sustained or repeated note in the bass

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Harmonic

chordal texture / melody with accompainiment

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Homophonic

chordal texture / melody with accompaniment 

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Broken chord

to play the notes of a chord separateley

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polyphonic / contrapuntal

weaving together two or more equally important melodic lines

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imitate

to copy

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canon

round of imitating voices

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unison

playing/singing at the same pitch

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monophonic

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monophonic

a single line melody 

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interval

degrees of the scale

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acciaccture

crushed note

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appooggiatura

non crushed note

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modal

ancient scales

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pentatonic scale

five note scale

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whole tone scale

whole tones

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sequence

melodic phrase repeated at a different pitch

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inversion

tune is turned upside down

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ostinato

short melodic phrase that is repeated a number of times in succession

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reverb

when sound lasts longer because it is reflected between walls 

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distortion

creates aggressive sound in rock music

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Rondo form

returns to section A always

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Arch form

A B C D C B A

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Ground bass

melody in the bass which is repeated over and over again

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