Music GCSE - Area of study 2:Shared music

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Romantic lieder and Pop ballad

Romantic lieder: a German song in the german language that is from the romantic period. The songs are dramatic, calm and reflective or tell a story.

It is for a solo voice and piano accompaniment and is normally played in a drawing room or a small recital hall

Famous composers: Schubert, Schumann, Brahms

Pop Ballad: popular songs that are from the 1950's to present day. Often a sentimental theme of love so is often quite slow to moderate tempo.

the accompaniment supports the voice and there may be backing singers that come in in the chorus. It has a intro, verse/chorus brigde coda structure. Often builds up through the verses.

Famous artists: Elton John, The Carpenters, Take That, Leona Lewis.

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Classical concerto and Jazz

Classical concerto:

- between 1750-1810

- Piano and clarinet are new instruments in this time

Famous composers: Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn

Jazz: originated in New orleans-USA- in early 1900's

Feactures: basic chord structure 12 bar blues or 32 bar chord sequence, improvisation, walking bass, swung rhythms, slides

Famous jazz musicians: Miles Davis, Louis Armstrong, Dave Brubeck

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Ensembles: Indian classical music and Gamelan

Indian classical music:

- performers sit cross legged on the floor facing each other

- the music can begin with tala or with a raga 

- players normally enter one by one

Feactures: raga scale, tala, drone, improvisation

Instruments: sitar, tabla drum, tanpura

Famous performers: Ravi Shanker, Alla Rakha

Gamelan: a collection of tuned metal percussion. Origionated from indonesia.

it is based on a pentatonic scale and is imporvised

Instruments used: Gongs, metallophones, drums

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Ensembles: Baroque and classical chamber music

baroque period: 1600-1750, composers- Bach, Handel, Vivaldi

classical period: 1750-1810, composers Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven

They use lots of ornamentation like trills, mordents, turns and acciaccatura

types of chamber music: (continuo = harpsichord or cello)

Baroque: sonata (solo insyrument and continuo) and Trio sonata (2 solo instruments and continuo)

Classical: sonata (Solo instrument and piano), Piano trio (Piano, violin and cello), String trio (Violin, viola and cello), String quartet (2 violins, viola and cello), Flute quartet (1 flute plus string quartet), Wind quartet (Flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon and French horn)

Baroque music is often contrapuntal or polyphonic.

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Great choral classic and African a capella

Great choral classic:

is a large chorus and orchestra from any musical history period. is performed in concert halls and churches

the choir is the focus and the orchestra accompanies

African a capella: uses no instruments just uses the voice

origionated from south africa

often has a free tempo and a wide range of pitch

well known songs: The Lion Sleeps Tonight bu Homeless.

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