Music AOS4 Set work 2

Indian Raga

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Indian Raga Key features

Ragas are 5-8 notes and create a particular mood.               Spiritual.

Never written down + improvised.  Intervals in a rag vary.

Sitar often plays improvised melody using raga. Sometimes a singer has the melody.

Tabla plays using rhythms called tals. The 1st beat is called the sam.

The tambura creates the harmony with a drone of 2 notes from the raga.

4 traditional phrases/sections:

1. Alap- Sitar improv. No regular beat, No percussion, Slow

2. Jhor- Speeds up, Steady beat, No tabla

3. Jhala- Faster, No tabla

4. Gat- Tabla in, pre-composed, question + answers improvs.

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Indian Instruments

Sitar= Long necked string instrument, 7 main strings + 12 drone ('sympathetic'), Frets can be moved, Plucked

Tambura= Stringed instrument smaller than sitar, 4-6 strings, Backing instrument

Tabla= Pair of drums, Small one is dayan, Large is bayan, Played with fingers

Sarod= Small fretless sitar

Sarangi= Small bowed instrument, no frets

Bansuri= Bamboo flute

Shenai= Double reeded instrument (like oboe)

Harmonium= Keyboard instrument with air pump

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Priyagitah: The Nightingale- Steve Gorn + Benjy We

Rag Desh is to be played at night in the rainy season. Gives feeling of romance + devotion.                         Notes are: C D F G B C Bb A G F E D C

Released in 2004.    Improvised in recording studio.

Bansuri, Esraj, Shruti box, Swarmandel, Tabla

Alap: Tambura drone on D + A, Bansuri + esraj set mood, Slow, No pulse

Gat 1: Tabla- steady rhythm, Starts with bansuri solo, Faster, Rupak- 7 beat tal, ends with a tihai (short phrase played 3 times)

Gat 2: Very fast, Starts with tabla solo- plays complicated rhythm, Ektal- 12 beat tal, Pre-composed with lots of runs, Ends with 3 tihais

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Raga Desh- Anoushka Shankar

Live at Carnegie Hall in New York, 2001.

Sitar, 2 tabla + tambura

Alap: Sitar + tambura only, Sitar is strummed, plucked + notes are bent (meends) , Slow, No regular pulse

Gat 1: Tabla enters, Jhaptal- 10 beat tal, Pre-composed melody played by sitar at a moderate tempo

Gat 2: Faster, Tintal- 16 beat tal, Pre-composed melody, Sitar strummed

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Mhara janam maran from Mewar Re Mira- S.D. Dhandha

Recorded in a studio. Performed by the Indian singer Chiranji Lal Tanwar, and was released in 2004.

Sarod, Sarangi, Pakhawaj, Tabla, Cymbals

Alap: Sitar improv. + tambura drone, Sarangi + male voice come in, voice uses vibrato + portamentos, Slow, No regular pulse

Bhajan: Faster, Tabla comes in with keherwa tal- 8 beat cycle

Bandish: Vocal part is more elaborate- trills, melismas + portamentos used, Hand cymbals used at end

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