Features of minimalism: lengthy pieces, hypnotic quality, non singable melody and slow harmonic rhythm!!!! XD
Composers: Terry riley, Philip glass and steve reich
Influnces: African, Indian classical and Gamelan
Techniques: Phase shifting, Editing melody, Layering, Metamorphosis and LOOPING!!!!
Experimental Music :/
Aleatoric music is left to chance, the composer will give the performer some information not all for example, play these notes any point in the piece, or repeat for 15 seconds !! See it can be anything really.!!!!
The performer could decide the dynamics, rhythm, pitch, tempo or phrasing, it can be any one of these elements maybe all or even more :@ !!!!
The word aleatoric means dice in latin ... how ironic -.- leaving stuff to chance!!! The result of the performer is completely unpredictable :/
Composers: Ligeti, Lutoslawski and many more ....
Aleatoric music can be written in Graphic score ... These are AWESOME!! :) seriously they are so fun to perform like a graph Y = pitch and X = duration :@
Composers do give the key, but thats pretty much it :P
John cage and fellow comopsers decided to make there performances more ... Theatrical
They brought in movement, mime, acting, wearing costumes and made gestures to the audience
Berio in 1966 had a soloist perform on the trombone, yet the 'rules' do still apply so the soloist still has to make gestures to the audience and use their voice ! :)
Some of these composers are just plain CRAZY!!! but i suppose to create excellence you can't be normal :)
Human voices were now added to the equation, with humming chanting,screaming rapping, switching languages, operatic melodies the most famous example for me is Catherine Beberian
They even started to use live instruments but they couldn't just play them, they hit them, took them apart, plucked them while being pressed on by dinner plates or covered in foam.
Schoenberg replaced Tonality with Serialism! He wanted to find a new way to structure his music, instead of minor and major keys.
Serialism meant putting the elements of the piece into a certain order, like Dynamics and changes or actual notes! ..... So first of all he worked on ordering the notes, this is known as the 12-tone System!!!
So he took the 12 chromatic notes in an octave and put them in a set order, this is the Prime Order!!
The next thing is is to rearrange the Prime Order: RETROGRADE!! in reverse order.
INVERTED!!! turned upside down ..................INVERTED RETROGRADE!!! Inverted notes in reverse order.
TRANSPOSED!!! notes in prime order or varied are moved up or downlike 2 semitones up or down! :)
Schoenberg used these variations as building blocks to composing his pieces, they could be used as the bass line or melody in any octave!
He combined notes to create Motifs- memorable (catchy) bits played through the piece :)
The chords used notes that were picked from the prime order or variation. The notes would be played at once but by different instruments, this is called Verticalisation! normally written horizontally but written vertically in the score... Nice sound created from playing pirime order chords with Triads. Or cluster chords when the notes are really close together.
Mostly random snippets really, hardly long melodies or steady rhythms, sometimes described as Pointillist.
Other Composers: Webern, Berg (who wrote lulu)
Later Composers created Total Serialism where the volume, rhythm and instruments had a set order... Joy!! -.-