-All 3 pieces use diatonic melodies.
-Combination of step wise movements and leaps, including the thematic rising minor 6th leap followed by a stepwise descent at bars 1-2 and elsewhere.
-Melodic sequencing bars 9-12.
-Bass borrows parts of opening melody in bars 9-12
-Combination of steps and leaps with much use of scalic work.
-Descending sequence in bar 2.
-Unusual descent of minor 7th in bar 9
-Mainly diatonic except for chromaticism in 2nd bar of A section.
-Section B has a very disjunct melody which is treated in sequence.
- The second half of the C section (25-28) has a 2 bar phrase with semitonal movement which spans a diminished 4th and is then treated in sequence, with one semitone expanding to a tone.
-All use simple rhythms, and simple duple time throughout.
- triplet figures used in the inner accompaniment.
-Melody uses dotted rhythms (due to limitations of contemporary notation, could have sounded like a crotchet-quaver triplet).
-Much use of semi-quavers
-Recurrence of same 2 bar rhythmic pattern throughout the piece with brief deviations for use of more sustained notes in 13-16.
-Dotted rhythms appear regularly in the A section.
- Elsewhere semiquavers are used either in pairs (B section) or groups of 4 (C section).
-Offbeat rhythms - every second semiquaver in the B section and every second quaver beat first half of C section.
-All use melody dominated homophony
-3 textural layers in the A section consisting of upper melody, inner quaver triplets and bass line.
-B section (9-14) differs; the melody is played mainly in thirds and the bass acts as a countermelody.
-Right hand melody is accompanied by the aforementioned 'stide-bass'. Exceptions to this are the open 5th double pedal in 13'2 - 15'1 and sustained chord with inner ascending scale at 15'2.
-Opening almost sounds like three part counterpoint with lower two parts descending in thirds.
-By bar 4 reasonably independents parts have emerged.
-Bar 5 establishes melody dominated homophony with tune in lowest part.
-B section (9-12) has bass tune with single bass notes and full 5 part chords.
-C sction 21-24 has three contrasting textural elements which alternate: fast semiquaver movement in 6ths, single bass notes and full 5 part chords.
-Melody dominated homophony 25-28 with stride-like accompaniment that reminisces no3.
-Rounded Binary A:BA with repeats.
-Rounded Binary A:BA with written out repeats of first four bars but conventional repeat of BA section.
-Symmetrical rondo form ABACABA with some parts repeated.
-All use functional harmony, mainly diatonic harmony with occasional chromatic chords.
-All use clearly defined cadences
-Perfect cadences e.g. 21-22.
-Chord 5 usually has added 7th
-Diminished 7th bar 1'2
-Unusual chhord progression in 11'2-12. Instead of II-V (in e minor) being followed by the expected tonic chord, harmony shifts unexpectedly to a G Major triad initially missing its 3rd.
-4-3 suspension in inner part of the writing in bar 7.
-Perfect cadence at bar 20.
-Appogiatura in bar 2 (accented semiquavers).
-Use of 7th chords, mainly dominant 7ths but II7-V7 chord progression used in bar 10.
-Prolonged neopolitan 6th chord in root position 13-15'1 with dissonant harmony on the 2nd beat whichcreates a pedal effect.
-Due to neopolitan 6th being in root position natural change to dominant 7th in bar 16 involves the leap of a tritone in the bass.
-Cadences are common but traditionally placed perfect cadences in root position are rare - the best example is at the end and even this is diluted by feminine cadence treatment.
-Most perfect cadences close on a weak beat e.g. bar 10 and 12 and even more dramatically in bar 24'2.
-Secondary dominant chord in bar 28'1.
-Imperfect cadences are frequent, for example Ic-V in bars 4 and 8.
-Use of chromatic harmony - such as opening two bars highly chromatic and include diminished triads on 2nd and 4th quavers of bar 2 (former includes a 7th).
-All modulate to related keys
-All use functional tonality.
-Modulation to E minor at bar 12 but the resolution to the tonic is surprisingly avoided.
-Modulation to G major at bar 9.
-Lengthy dominant preparation at bars 15'2-16.
-E minor is suggested by the I-Vb progression at the beginning.
- G major is established by bar 4.
-Modulation to E minor at bar 10, and, sequentially, C major at bar 12.
-Brief excursions to A minor at bar 22 and B minor in 24.
-Early romantic period meant changes to the piano - felt mallets instead of leather which gave piano a mellower and less strident quality, iron frame which helped with sustaining power and resonance.
-Piano writing features which are placed stylistically in the romantic period:
-> No1: two hands generate three clearly identifiable textural layers // Importance of sustaining pedal
-> no3: accompaniment leaps in dramatic fashion between bass notes and chords like the jazz stride-bass // 15-16 unusual effect of a sustained chord within which a chromatic melodic ascent is placed.
->no 11: starts with both hands very close and in the treble clef // section starts bar 9 places melody in bass and has an off beat semiquavers chords as right hand accompaniment.