Music A2 Revision - Schumann

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-All 3 pieces use diatonic melodies.

Kinderscenen 1:

-Combination of step wise movements and leaps, including the thematic rising minor 6th leap followed by a stepwise descent at bars 1-2 and elsewhere.

-Melodic sequencing bars 9-12.

-Bass borrows parts of opening melody in bars 9-12

Kinderscenen 3:

-Combination of steps and leaps with much use of scalic work.

-Descending sequence in bar 2.

-Unusual descent of minor 7th in bar 9

Kinderscenen 11:

-Mainly diatonic except for chromaticism in 2nd bar of A section.

-Section B has a very disjunct melody which is treated in sequence.

- The second half of the C section (25-28) has a 2 bar phrase with semitonal movement which spans a diminished 4th and is then treated in sequence, with one semitone expanding to a tone.

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-All use simple rhythms, and simple duple time throughout.

Kinderscenen 1:

- triplet figures used in the inner accompaniment.

-Melody uses dotted rhythms (due to limitations of contemporary notation, could have sounded like a crotchet-quaver triplet).

Kinderscenen 3:

-Much use of semi-quavers

-Recurrence of same 2 bar rhythmic pattern throughout the piece with brief deviations for use of more sustained notes in 13-16.

Kinderscenen 11:

-Dotted rhythms appear regularly in the A section.

- Elsewhere semiquavers are used either in pairs (B section) or groups of 4 (C section).

-Offbeat rhythms - every second semiquaver in the B section and every second quaver beat first half of C section.

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-All use melody dominated homophony

Kinderscenen 1:

-3 textural layers in the A section consisting of upper melody, inner quaver triplets and bass line.

-B section (9-14) differs; the melody is played mainly in thirds and the bass acts as a countermelody.

Kinderscenen 3:

-Right hand melody is accompanied by the aforementioned 'stide-bass'. Exceptions to this are the open 5th double pedal in 13'2 - 15'1 and sustained chord with inner ascending scale at 15'2.

Kinderscenen 11:

-Opening almost sounds like three part counterpoint with lower two parts descending in thirds.

-By bar 4 reasonably independents parts have emerged.

-Bar 5 establishes melody dominated homophony with tune in lowest part.

-B section (9-12) has bass tune with single bass notes and full 5 part chords.

-C sction 21-24 has three contrasting textural elements which alternate: fast semiquaver movement in 6ths, single bass notes and full 5 part chords.

-Melody dominated homophony 25-28 with stride-like accompaniment that reminisces no3.

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Kinderscenen 1:

-Rounded Binary A:BA with repeats.

Kinderscenen 3:

-Rounded Binary A:BA with written out repeats of first four bars but conventional repeat of BA section.

Kinderscenen 11:
-Symmetrical rondo form ABACABA with some parts repeated.

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-All use functional harmony, mainly diatonic harmony with occasional chromatic chords.

-All use clearly defined cadences

Kinderscenen 1:

-Perfect cadences e.g. 21-22.

-Chord 5 usually has added 7th

-Diminished 7th bar 1'2

-Unusual chhord progression in 11'2-12. Instead of II-V (in e minor) being followed by the expected tonic chord, harmony shifts unexpectedly to a G Major triad initially missing its 3rd.

-4-3 suspension in inner part of the writing in bar 7.

Kinderscenen 3:

-Perfect cadence at bar 20.

-Appogiatura in bar 2 (accented semiquavers).

-Use of 7th chords, mainly dominant 7ths but II7-V7 chord progression used in bar 10.

-Prolonged neopolitan 6th chord in root position 13-15'1 with dissonant harmony on the 2nd beat whichcreates a pedal effect.

-Due to neopolitan 6th being in root position natural change to dominant 7th in bar 16 involves the leap of a tritone in the bass.

Kinderscenen 11:

-Cadences are common but traditionally placed perfect cadences in root position are rare - the best example is at the end and even this is diluted by feminine cadence treatment.

-Most perfect cadences close on a weak beat e.g. bar 10 and 12 and even more dramatically in bar 24'2.

-Secondary dominant chord in bar 28'1.

-Imperfect cadences are frequent, for example Ic-V in bars 4 and 8.

-Use of chromatic harmony - such as opening two bars highly chromatic and include diminished triads on 2nd and 4th quavers of bar 2 (former includes a 7th).

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-All modulate to related keys

-All use functional tonality.

Kinderscenen 1:

-G Major

-Modulation to E minor at bar 12 but the resolution to the tonic is surprisingly avoided.

Kinderscenen 3:

-B minor

-Modulation to G major at bar 9.

-Lengthy dominant preparation at bars 15'2-16.

Kinderscenen 11:

-E minor is suggested by the I-Vb progression at the beginning.

- G major is established by bar 4.

-Modulation to E minor at bar 10, and, sequentially, C major at bar 12.

-Brief excursions to A minor at bar 22 and B minor in 24.

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-Early romantic period meant changes to the piano - felt mallets instead of leather which gave piano a mellower and less strident quality, iron frame which helped with sustaining power and resonance.

-Piano writing features which are placed stylistically in the romantic period:

-> No1: two hands generate three clearly identifiable textural layers // Importance of sustaining pedal

-> no3: accompaniment leaps in dramatic fashion between bass notes and chords like the jazz stride-bass // 15-16 unusual effect of a sustained chord within which a chromatic melodic ascent is placed.

->no 11: starts with both hands very close and in the treble clef // section starts bar 9 places melody in bass and has an off beat semiquavers chords as right hand accompaniment.

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