AOS 2 - Relationships between instruments

AOS 3 - Paired dances, Group dances, and improvised dances

AOS 4 - How music can be used to tell a story or create a mood

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  • Created by: Anna
  • Created on: 11-04-13 15:51

Romantic Songs - Lieder

Romantic Period - 1820 - 1900

  • Song for one singer and one piano - homophony
  • Based on German poems from the 18th and 19th Centuries - usually German words
  • Tell a story (dramatic and full of emotion)
  • Usually either:
    • 'through composed' - different in each verse
    • strophic structure - verses have the same tune
  • Lots of motifs (music that represent an idea, character or place) - these are repeated throughout the song
  • Song cycle - a collection of Lieder on the same theme
  • Schubert, Schumann, Beethoven, Brahms
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Pop Ballads

Tell stories (often a love story) - this is the most important part of the ballad

Singer-songwriters - often accompany themselves on guitar or piano (the accompaniment reflects the themes of the vocals, usually lots of repetition and inversion of motifs, texture varies to make dynamics more dramatic, instrumental section) - homophony


  • Verses have the same rhythm and tune but different lyrics
  • Chorus has a different but catchy tune (these don't change)
  • Both 8 or 16 bars long
  • Song usually finishes with a coda or outro
  • Sometimes has a middle 8, or bridge, with new chords, lyrics, and feel
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Pop Ballads Continued...

Fancy Stuff:

  • A Capella
  • Vibrato - quiver up and down slightly in pitch
  • Falsetto - high male voice
  • Portamento - slide from one note to another
  • Riffing - decorate the tune (usually at the end of phrases, between sections, or to fnish the song)

Lead singer - mention their style and male / female

Backing singers sing harmonies:

  • Harmony - all sing different notes
  • Unison - all sing same note
  • Descant - sing high part in time with main tune
  • Call and Response - repeating lead singer / answering with another tune

Elton John (Your Song), Kate Bush (Wuthering Heights), Bob Dylan (Blowing in the Wind)

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Baroque and Classical Forms

  • Binary form – 2 sections (AABB), usually found in Baroque dances, B section often modulates to a relative key
  • Ternary form – 3 sections (AABBAA), A section usually ends with a perfect cadence, B section often modulated to a relative key
  • Rondo form – (ABACA…), each new section (episodes) contrasts with the original A section (main theme / refrain)
  • Theme and variation form – as many sections as you want (A, A1, A2, A3, A4, etc.), each section is a variation of the original theme: add notes (for melodic decoration), remove notes (simplify the tune), change the metre and the rhythm, change the key, change the tempo, add a countermelody (create counterpoint by adding another melody over the top), change the accompaniment – chords or style, melodic inversion (turning the tune upside down), retrograde (playing the tune backwards), sequencing (repeating the pattern, but varying the pitch), imitation (repeat with a slight change), ostinato (keep one pattern the same, but change the rest)
  • Ground bass form – main theme (the ‘ground’) in repeated in the bass line, with varying melodies and harmonies (becoming more complex) played over the top, Pachelbel’s Canon
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Sonata Form

  • 3 main sections, each with a specific structure:
    • Introduction
    • Exposition- two contrasting themes introduced
    • Development – themes go through lots of variations
    • Recapitulation- themes from exposition repeated, sometimes with slight change
    • Coda - concluding section
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Melody Patterns

  • Trill – tiny quick notes (usually in classical it starts on the written note and goes up, the penultimate note is the one below the written note)
  • Appoggiaturas – clash with chord, take half the value of the following note (the resolution – from the accompanying chord), fall on strong beat, also called a grace note (acciaccaturas are another type of grace note – they have a line through them and are played quickly)
  • Passing note – link notes before and after (which usually belong to accompanying chord), when played on the strong beat they are called ‘accented passing notes’
  • Mordent – like a trill, end on written note which is played longer, upper mordent, lower mordent (has line through symbol)
  • Turn – starts on note above, goes to written note, then note below, then finishes on written note (inverted turn starts on note below and does the opposite, finishing on the written note)
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1600-1750 - Bach, Handel, Vivaldi

Baroque Style:

  • Sudden dynamic changes – terraced / stepped
  • Simple harmonies
  • Ornamentation
  • Contrapuntal texture (polyphonic – separate lines move with different rhythms, exclusively baroque)
  • Basso continuo – bass melody instrument (cello, bassoon, etc.), with a chord instrument (organ, lute, harpsichord, etc.)
  • Rich string section in orchestras
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1750-1820 - Mozart, Haydn

Classical Orchestra:

  • Dominant string section – play the tune
  • Wind instruments fill out the harmony

Classical Style:

  • Short, balanced, 2 or 4 bar phrases
  • One tune with accompanying chords – homophonic texture
  • Regular metre
  • Constant tempo
  • Subtle dynamics
  • Piano was invented and used
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Classical Structures


  • 4 movements:
    • 1st - sonata form, brisk and purposeful
    • 2nd - ternary or variation form, slower and song-like
    • 3rd - minuet or scherzo, fairly fast and dance like
    • 4th - rondo, variation, or sonata form, fast and cheerful
  • Orchestra
  • May include a choir

Concerto (also a Baroque structure):

  • 3 movements:
    • 1st - sonata form, brisk and purposeful
    • 2nd - ternary or variation form, slower and song-like
    • 3rd - rondo, variation, or sonata form, fast and cheerful
  • Soloist and orchestra – piano and violin concertos were very popular
  • Often featured a cadenza - orchestra stops playing and soloist plays an ornamental passage
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Classical Structures Continued...

Sonata (also a Baroque structure):

  • 3/4 movements
  • 1/sometimes 2 instruments
  • Generally quite quick


  • 1 movement
  • Orchestra
  • Often introductions to larger works (e.g. operas or ballets) – use ideas, moods, and musical themes from the main work to prepare the audience


 A collection of incidental music used to accompany action on stage, put together as a separate piece of music and played at concerts

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Baroque Structures

Concerto Grosso:

  • Full orchestra (ripieno) and small group of instrumental soloists (concertino)
  • They use ritornello form (a type of rondo form), where the main theme is played by the full orchestra and the episodes are played by the soloists

Fugues, Canons, Rounds:

They are all very similar and are based on two or more parts that repeat the same tune – each part starting before the last has finished. In a fugue the theme is developed each time it is played.

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Chamber Music

Composed for small groups (2-8 musicians), no conductor, and each part of the music is played by just one person. There were popular types of chamber groups, which varied depending on the era.

Baroque Chamber Music:

  • Small Concerto, with no more than 8 performers
  • Trio Sonata, common groupings were:
    • Strings – 1st violin, 2nd violin, continuo (harpsichord and cello)
    • Woodwind – flute, oboe, bassoon

Classical Chamber Music

  • String Trio – violin, viola, cello
  • String Quartet – 1st violin, 2nd violin, viola, cello
  • Duet – 2 instruments (generally piano and solo)
  • Piano Trio – piano, violin, cello
  • Clarinet Quintet – clarinet, 1st violin, 2nd violin, viola, cello
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