Music of Africa and Asia Listening Test

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  • Created by: cora
  • Created on: 12-04-16 17:11

Zimbabwe - Mbira

  • Southern Africa
  • Mbira (thumb piano)
  • Karimba - later development of mbira
  • Bira ceremonies (singing, dancing, handclapping)
  • Shona people
  • All night ceremony
  • Call to ancestral spirits for guidance and intervention

Examples

African Zimbabwe Mbira Music https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tdw5IoqUOhs&index=1&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

Mbira Music Materpiece Live https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tKbfUEhjuH4&index=2&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

 

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Cameroon + Gabon - BaAka

  • Central Africa, equatorial rainforest 
  • "Pygmies"
  • Polyphonic singing
  • Typically minor pentatonic scale
  • Improvisational
  • Hunting ceremonies

(http://www.dzanga-sangha.org/drupal/sites/default/files/old/02_admin_touristische_highlights/89450002%20%5B50%25%5D.JPG)

Examples

Human Planet - BaAka Music https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PX8YPAXebyc&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp&index=4

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West Africa - Agbekor

  • Agbekor ensemble 
  • Agbe - life, Kor - clear
  • Originally played as a war dance
  • Also played at funerals
  • Ewe people - Ghana + Togo
  • Pulse/timeline/rhythm/metre
  • Notated using TUBS - Time Limit Box System
  • African peoples have no term for rhythm 
  • Gankogui - cow bell-like instrument
  • Axatse - wooden maraca-like round with beads/shells 
  • Kaganu - narrow drum

(http://www.heartbeats-of-africa.co.uk/images/ewe.jpg)

Examples

Jason Aryeh Research Project https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7NUjDKOiyas&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp&index=5

Agbekor Ewe Music and Dance https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qOlgMgZkAQQ&index=6&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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West Africa - Griot/Jeli

  • Mali, Guinea + Gambia
  • Kora - 21 strings, cross between harp and lute
  • Bala - wooden xylophone
  • Mande culture
  • Griot/Jeli is a west African musician/story teller
  • Weddings, baptisms, funerals

(http://www.coraconnection.com/images/toumani-trio.gif)

Examples

Toumani Diabate and Ballake Sissoko 1999 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnTDuahaXwg&index=8&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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West Africa - Wassoulou

  • Mali
  • Popular since 1970s
  • Kamalengoni - 6 stringed 'youth' harp
  • Masked dance performances 
  • Mostly female singers - Oumou Sangare

(http://www.africansuccess.org/docs/image/sangare.jpg)

Examples

Ambience de Wassoulou https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_93yqU13ABA

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Morocco - Gnawa

  • Lila ritual
  • Islamic
  • M'allem - male musical leader
  • Jinn spirit possesion
  • Trance - jadba - state
  • Qraqab - metal castanets
  • Gimbri - 3 string lute

(http://www.gildedserpent.com/art60/graphics60/Amel/LilaDerdeba-Mouqadma.jpg)

Examples

Moroccon Gnawa Music https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlLwDnls4rM&index=10&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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Turkey - Sufism

  • North west Asia
  • Islamic "mysticism"
  • Sema ritual as part of Dhikr ritual
  • Repeating prayers to remember Allah 
  • Uses music to reach the ultimate goal of experiencing the absolute reality of Allah
  • Trance music
  • Excitational trance - psycological disturbances through much physical exhaustion 
  • Much like meditation
  • Ney (flute)
  • Kemence (bowed fiddle)
  • Kudum (drum)
  • Tanbur (fretted plucked lute)

(http://www.inenart.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/2015/04/sufi-dhikr-med.jpg)

Examples

Sema Ceremony of the Whirling Dervishes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S45OJnQp6mI&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp&index=11

Mevlana Sufi Music and Sema Ritual https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rlkt2vD1L9k&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp&index=12

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Azerbaijan - Mugham

  • Mugham - musical concept denoting specific modes, motifs + improvisation
  • Performed by trio led by voice
  • Can be solo/instrumental
  • Daf (drum)
  • Tar (stringed plucked lute)
  • Kamancha (4 stringed fiddle)
  • Can include nagara (drums)
  • Alim Qasimov - foremost mugham singer 
  • Played in folk performances/settings

(http://www.azer.com/aiweb/categories/magazine/84_folder/84_photos/84_135_french_mugham.jpg)

Examples

Azerbaijani Mugham Concert https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vOV1K1HvJLw&index=13&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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North India - Rag

  • Hindustani Rag
  • Sarangi (bowed, short necked string instrument)
  • Tabla (membranaphone percussion instrument)
  • Sitar (plucked string instrument)
  • Sarod (4 stringed lute)
  • Raga - complex tonal framework for composition and improvisation
  • Played at social occasions
  • Spiritual music
  • In praise to hindu gods

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-Az3uZ7_LWtA/T9iBGIhcDwI/AAAAAAAACBc/wDN0coGScoA/s400/Hindustani-Music-300x213.png)

Examples

Sarod and Table Instrumental https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=163ZNz_5coE&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp&index=14

Anoushka Shankar Classical Rag https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-wra4p4zARw&index=15&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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South Asia - Qawwali

  • Pakistan, North India, parts of Bangladesh
  • Sufism, Islam
  • Played in shrines, religious music
  • Also in popular music
  • Massive Attack remixed the song Mustt Mustt by Nusrat Fateh 
  • 15-30 mins long
  • Harmonium/pump organ

(http://www.pilotguides.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Qawwali-Singers-by-Joshua-Singh.jpg)

Examples 

Tum Ek Gorakh Dhanda Ho https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=alMEZfaAYq4&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp&index=16

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Indonesia - Gamelan

  • Bali - gong kebyar 
  • Polyphonic
  • Inner melody
  • Sudan, West Java - gamelan degung
  • Polyphonic
  • Heterophonic
  • Played at celebrations, theatres, alongside poetry
  • Metallophones
  • Kendhang (two headed drum)

(http://marklockett.com/assets/images/photos/gamelaninstruments.jpg)

Examples

Indonesian Gamelan Medley https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sZZTfu4jWcI&index=17&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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Vietnam - Ca Tru + Chan Van

  • Ca Tru - chamber music
  • Originates in northern Vietnam
  • Played in villages and communal houses
  • Rituals and feasts
  • Competitions
  • Banquets + opium smoking houses
  • 5 kho phases 
  • Dan day (3 stringed lute)
  • Chan van - ritual music 
  • Spiritual posession/medium rituals 
  • Evoking spirits

(http://guides.edu.vn/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Ca-Tru-Thang-Long.jpg)

Examples 

Ca Tru Vietnam https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EMGWe74__KA

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Thailand - PhiPhat

  • Phi Phat ensemble 
  • Classical music of Thailand 
  • Large gong circles + xylophones
  • Polyphonic
  • Melodies - groups of 4 pitches marked by patterns on the ching (hand cymbals)
  • Used for the interpretation of Thai classical repetoire of the buddhist Sathukan 
  • Also for accompanying shadow puppet performances and classical dance 

(http://www.seasite.niu.edu/thai/music/classical/thaiensemble/images/PiphatkrungHa.jpg)

Examples

Phiphat Ensemble https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p2Z5HAYjCcs

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Japan - Noh

  • Noh is a type of drama where music and dance are very important aspects
  • Uti is the music
  • 5 types of noh plays
  • 2 main characters Shite + Waki
  • Fully established in the 17th century
  • Fue (flute)
  • Kotsuzumi (shoulder drum)
  • Otsuzumi (hip drum)
  • Taiko (stick drum)
  • All four instruments known as shibyoshi 
  • Must musicians from an established family

(http://www.the-noh.com/jp/sekai/img/hunabenkei.jpg)

Examples

Japanese Noh Documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C2Oi3C4G1WI&index=21&list=PLYXvKJt7j1q6bBRkGRj2sc5_foVkDnMXp

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Korea - Sanjo

  • Sanjo - scattered melodies
  • Channgu (hourglass shaped double headed drum)
  • Kayagum (12 stringed instrument)
  • Consists of a series of movements
  • Evolved from folksongs and shaman music

(http://www.asia.si.edu/podcasts/related/korean/main.jpg)

Examples 

Ancient Korean Sanjo Music https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFe8nHQottI

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Oceania - Kaluli

  • Kaluli people
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Songs of humans in relation to rainforest sounds
  • In ceremony or spirit medium seances 
  • Vocal

Examples

Mount Hagen Cultural Festival, Papua New Guinea https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFL0f6knC3Q

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Oceania - Wangga

  • Indegenous Australian
  • Genre of traditional music and ceremony
  • Funerals, interaction between living and dead ancestors
  • Draws together the worlds of the living and dead
  • Alternation of vocal and instrumental sections
  • Digeridoo 

(http://wangga.library.usyd.edu.au/content/data//figures/100000000000067E00000461CFE08BA7.png)

Examples

Wangga https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XI0dy61aGsw

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Oceania - 'Are 'Are

  • 2 parts of the music 'bound in friendship'
  • Equiheptatonic scale
  • Solomon Islands
  • Complex panpipe music
  • Handmade wooden tubes banged against rocks 

(http://www.der.org/films/images/are-are.jpg)

Examples

'Are 'Are Music https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOTe4S_leSE

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