Musculoskeletal system


Joint types and articulating bones

Ankle                                                                                        Elbow- Hinge- Radius, ulna, humerus

  • Hinge joint
  • Articulating bones: Talus, tibia, fibula


  • Hinge joint
  • Articulating bones:A Femur, tibia


  • Ball and socket
  • Articulating bones:Pelvis, femur


  • Ball and socket 
  • Articulating bones:Scapula, humerus
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Joint Actions

Joint actions in the sagittal plane about the transverse axis

  • Flexion, extension/hyper-extension, plantar-flexion and dorsi-flexion
  • Sommersault occurs on the sagittal plane about a transverse axis
  • Superior striker (SST)

Joint actions in the frontal plane about a sagittal axis

  • Abduction and adduction
  • Cartwheels occur on the frontal plane about a sagittal axis
  • Cats fall safely (CFS)

Joint actions in the transverse plane about a longitudinal axis

  • Horizontal adduction and horizontal abduction occur in the transverse plane about a longitudal axis.
  • Occurs in the shoulder when the arm is held straight out in front at a 90 degree angle to the body and parallel to the ground and is either moved across the body and or away from the body. 
  • Full-twists occur on the transverse plane about a longitudinal axis. (**** Trump Lovers)
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Antagonistic pairs

Agonist- shortens and contracts to produce the movement                               

Antagonist- lengthens and relaxes to co-orinate movement

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Antagonistic pairs and joint actions

  • Elbow flexion- Bicep and tricep
  • Elbow extension- Tricep and bicep
  • Ankle plantar-flexion- Gastronemius and tibialis anterior 
  • Ankle dorsi-flexion- Tibialis anterior and gastronemius
  • Knee flexion- Hamstrings and quadriceps
  • Knee extension- Quadriceps and hamstrings
  • Hip flexion- Hip flexors and gluteals
  • Hip extension/ hyper-extension- Gluteals and hip flexors 
  • Hip adduction (horizontal)- Adductors and gluteals medius/minimus
  • Hip abduction(horizontal)- Gluteals medius/minimus and adductors
  • Shoulder flexion- Anterior deltoid and latissimus dorsi 
  • Shoulder extension- Latissimus dorsi and anterior deltoid
  • Shoulder horizontal adduction- Pectorals and latissimus dorsi
  • Shoulder horizontal abduction- Latissimus dorsi and pectorals
  • Shoulder adduction- Posterior deltoid/latissimus dorsi and middle deltoid
  • Shoulder abduction- Middle deltoid and posterior deltoid/latissimus
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Types of muscular contraction

Isotonic contraction is when a muscle contracts to create movement

  • Concentric contraction- when a muscle shortens under tension (bicep curl)
  • Eccentric contraction- when a muscle lengthens under tension (downward phase of movemnet when the muscle is acting as a brake.Tricep in the downward phase of the press up)

Isometric contraction is when a muscle contracts without actually lengthening or shortening, and the result is that no movement occurs. Crucifix position in gymnastics.

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