- Created by: Mr Rushton
- Created on: 30-04-19 15:27
muscular system - response single exercise
Increased blood supply- Meets demand for O2 and glucose. Vasodilation. Removes CO2
Increased muscle temperature - fuel broken down for energy release creates heat as by product.
Increased muscle pliability- muscle warming = more piable / flexible muscles. Helps to reduce injury
Lactate build up - high intensity exercise = lactic acid by product. if not removed fatigue set in quickly
Micro tears - resistance training causes micro tears. eccentric contractions. protein helps repair
DOMS (delayed onset of muscle soreness) - pain 24-48 hrs after exercise, lasts upto 3 days, caused by micro tears
muscular system - long term adaptations
Hypertrophy - resistance training causes overload, muscle fibres grow, contract with greater force.
Increased tendon strength - fibrous connective tissue, increase in strength + flexibility via exercise.
Increased number + size mitochondria - increase in fibre size = more room = mitochondria increase in number, therefore more aerobic energy can be produced.
Increased myoglobin stores - binds and stores O2 in muscle cells, passes O2 to mitochondria = greater aerobic energy produced.
Increased glycogen storage - muscles store more glycogen, used as fuel, increased high intensity exercise duration.
Increased storage of fat - used as a fuel when O2 present, used when carbs are running out.
Increased tolerance to lactate - more efficient clear LA away quicker + get O2 to muscles greater number of capillaries help, delays fatigue
Muscle tissue type
- walls of Stomach / intestines / blood vessels
- myocardium / walls of the heart
- involuntary (contractions)
- only in the heart
Cramp + Age
- involuntary sustained skeletal muscular contraction / spasm
- prevents muscle movement
- occurs due to dehydration / lack of electrolytes / salt
- prevents performer from: running/kicking ball/throwing etc...
50 yrs old muscle mass starts to reduce, sarcopenia. Reduces muscle strength + power.
- Myoglobin carries oxygen
- therefore muscles increase their oxidative capacity
- muscles can work at higher intensity / longer duration
- fatigue delayed / occur later in the game / be able to play until the end.
Muscle contractions (Press up)
- Pectoralis major (shoulder) agonist / Tricep (elbow) agonist / concentrically contract
- Trapezius/rhomboids + bicep antagonists / contract eccentrically
- Synergists support agonist / Deltoids synergists / concentrically contract
- Fixators prevent unwanted movement / Abdominals, obliques, quadriceps / fixator muscles contract isometrically
- Pectoralis major (shoulder) agonist / Tricep (elbow) agonist / eccentrically contract
- Trapezius/rhomboids + bicep antagonists / contract concentrically
- Deltoids synergists and contract eccentrically
- Abdominals, obliques and quadriceps fixator muscles / contract isometrically
Muscle contraction types
Agonist - contracts concentrically, AKA prime mover, initiates the movement
Antagonist - relaxes during movement, opposite muscle to agonist, eccentric contraction
Synergist - support to agonist, additional smaller smaller muscles, eccentric/concentric contraction
Fixator - contract isometrically, stabilising the (origin) of agonist/muscle, supports agonist to carry out movement, stops unwanted movement, stops weight from crashing down causing injury
Concentric - Increase of tension in the muscle + shortens in length (e.g. bicep curl - bicep - upward phase)
Eccentric - increase in tension + lengthening of muscle / breaking action (e.g. press up - tricep down phase)
Isometric - contraction no movement takes place + remains same length under tension (e.g. bicep curl - bicep when holding the weight with a bent elbow)
- Muscles increase pliability due increased temperature
- muscle greater ability to stretch
- reduce risk of injury
Muscle Fibre Types
- utilise the aerobic energy system
- resistant to fatigue
- continuous contraction meets demands of longer events
- fast contracting/they can produce great force
- work at a high intensity
- keep exercising fast / maintain + finish quicker
- Fast twitch glycolytic contract producing high force
- football for speed / power based movements e.g a shot / jumping for a header