- used in all movements of the arms
- lifts the arm straight outwards and upwards (abduction)
- e.g.to make a block in volleyball with arms straight above the head.
- aducts and routates the shoulder blade outwards
- helps to turn the head and bens the neck downwards
- e.g. a rugby forward in a scrum uses the trapezius to bind into the opponents
- made up of two sets of chest muscles
- help to adduct the arm and rotate it inwards as well as lowering the shoulder blades
- e.g. when tackling in rugby you hold on to you opponent using your pectoral muslces.
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- provides stability to the knee joint
- extends or straighens the knee joint
- e.g. a long jumper will striaghten the knee joint at take off using the quadriceps.
- these muscles straighten the hip
- they also bend the knee and rotate it outwards
- e.g. a runner uses their hamstrings in the running action to bend the knees
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- the broad back muscle
- swings the arm backwards and rotates the arm inwards
- e.g. a tennis player uses their latissimusdorsi when swinging their arm back to hit the ball
- these bend the trunk forwards and help to turn the upper body
- e.g. performing a sit-up exercise will use the abdominals
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- this is an elbow felxor.
- it swings the upper arm forward and turns the forearm so that the palm of the hand points upwards
- e.g. the cicepes curl in weight training
- this is the elbox extensor
- it is attached to the elbow
- it straightens the elbow
- e.g used in the backhand when playing table tennis
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- To produce movement muscles either shorten, lenthen or remain the same length when they contract.
- Muscles work in pairs.
- As one muscle contract, the other relaxes.
- Muscles that work together like this are called antagonistic pairs.
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- Agonist/prime mover is the muces tat insitgates the movement
- e.g. the bicep is the mcsle that produces flexion at the elbow
- Antagonist is the opposing muscle that controls the movement.
- e.g. the action of the elbow caused bu the biceps shortening is opposed by the lengthening of the triceps, which act as the antagonist.
- Synergist is the musclr that stabilises the movement at the joint.
- e.g. the abdominals act as a synergist when the knee is bent and the lower leg moves backwards.
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Ranges of Movement
- Flexion is a decrease in the angle around a joint
- e.g. when you bend you arm at the elbow to touch your shoulder with your hand
- Extension is when the angle of the bones that are moving (articulating bones) is increased
- e.g. when standing up from a squating position the angle between your femur and tibia increases, thus extension takes place.
- Abduction is the movement of the body away form the middle/midline of the body
- e.g. lifting you leg straight away from the middle of the body
- Adduction is the movement towards the midline
- e.g. lowering a lifted leg towards the middle of your body
- Rotation is when the bone turns about its longitudinal axis within the joint.
- e.g. when a balet dancer moves into first position and rotates the hip joint.
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