Muscles and Movement

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  • Created by: Katherine
  • Created on: 25-03-13 18:32

Upper Muscles


  • used in all movements of the arms
  • lifts the arm straight outwards and upwards (abduction)
  • make a block in volleyball with arms straight above the head.


  • aducts and routates the shoulder blade outwards
  • helps to turn the head and bens the neck downwards
  • e.g. a rugby forward in a scrum uses the trapezius to bind into the opponents


  • made up of two sets of chest muscles
  • help to adduct the arm and rotate it inwards as well as lowering the shoulder blades
  • e.g. when tackling in rugby you hold on to you opponent using your pectoral muslces.
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Lower Muscles


  • provides stability to the knee joint
  • extends or straighens the knee joint
  • e.g. a long jumper will striaghten the knee joint at take off using the quadriceps.


  • these muscles straighten the hip
  • they also bend the knee and rotate it outwards
  • e.g. a runner uses their hamstrings in the running action to bend the knees
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Middle Muscles


  • the broad back muscle 
  • swings the arm backwards and rotates the arm inwards
  • e.g. a tennis player uses their latissimusdorsi when swinging their arm back to hit the ball


  • these bend the trunk forwards and help to turn the upper body
  • e.g. performing a sit-up exercise will use the abdominals
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Arm Muscles


  • this is an elbow felxor.
  • it swings the upper arm forward and turns the forearm so that the palm of the hand points upwards
  • e.g. the cicepes curl in weight training


  • this is the elbox extensor
  • it is attached to the elbow
  • it straightens the elbow
  • e.g used in the backhand when playing table tennis
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Muscle Movement

  • To produce movement muscles either shorten, lenthen or remain the same length when they contract.
  • Muscles work in pairs.
  • As one muscle contract, the other relaxes.
  • Muscles that work together like this are called antagonistic pairs.
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Muscle Groups

  • Agonist/prime mover is the muces tat insitgates the movement
    • e.g. the bicep is the mcsle that produces flexion at the elbow
  • Antagonist is the opposing muscle that controls the movement.
    • e.g. the action of the elbow caused bu the biceps shortening is opposed by the lengthening of the triceps, which act as the antagonist.
  • Synergist is the musclr that stabilises the movement at the joint.
    • e.g.  the abdominals act as a synergist when the knee is bent and the lower leg moves backwards. 
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Ranges of Movement

  • Flexion is a decrease in the angle around a joint
    • e.g. when you bend you arm at the elbow to touch your shoulder with your hand
  • Extension is when the angle of the bones that are moving (articulating bones) is increased
    • e.g. when standing up from a squating position the angle between your femur and tibia increases, thus extension takes place.
  • Abduction is the movement of the body away form the middle/midline of the body
    • e.g. lifting you leg straight away from the middle of the body
  • Adduction is the movement towards the midline
    • e.g. lowering a lifted leg towards the middle of your body
  • Rotation is when the bone turns about its longitudinal axis within the joint.
    • e.g. when a balet dancer moves into first position and rotates the hip joint. 
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