Hitler wanted to take control of Munich in 1923 as he thought the Weimar Republic was crumbling and he wanted power. He thought the best way to gain power would be to use force.
Stage 1- Gustav Kahr, the Bavarian minister was giving a speech in a large beer hall in Munich with all the governers. Hitler aranged for 600 stormtroopers to suround the hall, as he burst in and announced that a national revolution had begun! He held a gun to Kahr's head and forced him to publicly support the putsch. Then, General Ludendorf entered the hall and declared that he too was supporting Hitler along with his Bavarian army (he was in on the plan). But on the next day, Kahr withdrew his statement.
Stage 2- Despite the Kahr's withdrawal, Hitler went ahead and marched through Munich with 2-300 stormtroopers and Bavarian army members in order to win the public's support. But Kahr had warned the city, so there were hundreds of armed police and soldiers waiting for them. A 1 minute gun fire took place and 16 nazis were shot dead, while hundeds were injured (Including Hitler). The Putsch had failed, and instead of gaining power, both Hitler and Ludendorf were arrested.
Stage 3- The Trial could have been the end of Hitler's career, but it recieved huge publicity and was first page news in EVERY German newsaper for 24 days. This meant that millions of people could read all that Hitler said in defence. As a result, Hitler's fame spread nation-wide, which mean that the Nazi's publicity was huge. He was found guilty of high treason and was sentenced to a lenient five years of "Fortress detention" (politician prison) but was released after nine months of good behavior, as the judge was a nazi supporter.
Failures of the putsch
- Hitler didn't have enough support, as 3000 members was not enough for the nazi party to take over Germany.
- Ludendorf being late took a lot of extra time, as Kahr didn't believe that Hitler had Ludendorf's support.
- Ludendorf allowed Kahr and the ministers to go home and "see their wives"! But they immediately contacted the Weimar government in Berlin, who mobilised the army.
- Hitler was arrested for treason.
- He didn't get power.
- Hitler was injured (shot in the shoulder).
- The SA came under heavy gunfire when they tried to take over the Bavarian army.
Success of the putsch and why Hitler went ahead
If Hitler hadn't gone head with the putsch, it is thought that his men may have killed him and gone ahead with it anyway, as they were all so against the Weimar goverment.
- Hitler recieved a LOT of publicity from the trial, which gained him lots of support as people agreed with his views.
- His prison sentence was shortened, so he was able to carry on with his work a lot faster than predicted!
- He was supported by the Bavarians because they were very bitter due to: Rising prices and unemployment, the Ruhr resistance was scrapped, there was no potatoes. And this made them support Hitler in the putsch.
- Hitler became seen as a right wing leader, which made many people support him.
- He had time to write "Mein Kampf" his plan of action
- He could run the nazis from prison!
- Hitler got a light sentence.