World Cities Case Studies

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Urbanisation (Mumbai)

Mega city on the west coast of India. Major port and cultural centre (Bollywood). Migranst move in search of jobs. Population increased from 5.9 to 12.5 million. More than half the population live in poverty.

IMPACTS: Increased population adds to the demand for water. Dependent on monsoon rains, dry years water is rationed.

Public health care only reaches 30% of urban poor. Outbreaks of malaria and dendue fever common and IMR is high (40 deaths per 1000). 

Homes are cramped/poorly built, without water supply/sanitation. Lack of toilets, a risk to health.

MANAGEMENT: Slum Sanitation Program started in 1995. It built 330 new communal toilet blocks in Mumbai slums.

Alternative forms of transport (scooters) to reduce journey times. Reduce congestion, add to poor air quality.

Metro system with 140km of new rail lines. First line opened in 2013, not completed until 2021.  

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Suburbanisation (Surbiton)

Area in south west London. Population increased from 141,000 to 160,000. Move because of a variety of good quality housing, plenty of shops/restaurants, good state schools and a number of parks.

PROBLEMS: 70% of households own a car. When parked causes congestion which is difficult for large vehicles.

House prices are high. Average selling price is £406,000 (compared to the UK £226,000). Harder for people on low income to move in which may cause economic segregation.

Currently in travel zone 6. Fares into central London are expensive with commuters choosing to drive. Increases congestion and air pollution.

MANAGEMENT: Reclassify Surbiton station in travel zone 5. Commuters pay less, encourage people to use train.

Secure bicycle units been installed and plans to improve pedestrian access which will encourage people to cylce instead of driving.

Surbiton Neighbourhood Committee set up to involve residents. How to improve the area?

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Counter-Urbanisation (St Ives)

In Cambridgeshire, 70 miles north of London. Population grew from 3800 to 16,400. Good road access and rail links. Quarter of the population commute into London.

IMPACTS: Traffic congestion is a problem, especially during rush hour on the A14.

Average price of a house rose from £130,000 to £291,000. Commuters earn higher wage.

More shops/services in the town.

Population structure has changed from ageing, but an influx in younger people mean more people under the age of 16. Puts pressure on schools, more school places needed.

MANAGEMENT: Expand primary schools to make 240 more places.

After flooding in 2003, flood protection work costing £8.8million was completed along the River Great Ouse.

Plans approved in 2010 to build 200 new homes. At least 75 will be affordable housing aimed at people on low income (e.g. social rents/low-cost ownership).  

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Re-Urbanisation (London Docklands-LDDC)

On the River Thames, east of the city. 19/20th centuries docks were of global importance with a lot of economic activity. In the 60s, the docks began to decline because the docks weren't large or deep enough and contanerisation. In the 80s, 150,000 people had lost their jobs and 20% of housing was unsuitable. LDDC was set up in 1981.

POSITIVE: 24,000 new homes built, including 6250 housing association. New schools/collages built with existing schools improved (new IT equipment). Docklands Light Railway opened in 1987, cut journey times to 20minutes. Pedestrian/cycle routes will make area easier and safer. Refurbished docks provided plesant environment.

NEGATIVE: Conflict between original residents and newer, more affluent residents. Felt LDDC favoured luxury developments. Original residents unable to find work. Jobs of a skilled position and original residents were not qualified (1981, 36% of people were unskilled or semi-skilled).

MANAGEMENT: 40% of new housing sold at affordable prices to original residents. Centres set up to provide training in basic literacy, numeracy and IT. Trained unemployed 16-18 year olds, giving them work experience. Supported Skillnet - a job agency which provides people with the skills they need to find work.  

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Partnership Scheme (Hulme)

19/20th century, Hulme provided housing for people working in Manchester industries. Slum clearance programme in the 1960s, with unemployment in 1989 was 32%.

Mid 19th century it was overcrowded with people living in poor quality housing. In the 1960s the area was cleared for redevelopment. People moved out of their homes into flats and new tower blocks. These were pest infested and poor heating. Many residents had poor health and depression.

£24m worth of public sector regeneration drawn from 3 major European Commissions and National Government programmes, have been invested in Hulme. Estimated £400m has been invested.

Population grew by 3.3% between 1992 and 2002, compared to 0.2% across the city. Unemployment fell to 6% in 2010.

Hulme is still a poor area with 47.5% of the population living in social housing. House prices have increased, unaffordable for people on low income. Unemployment high compared to Manchester.  

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Regeneration of CBD (Liverpool One)

Needed to be regenerated due to the population decreasing from 867,000 to 439,000. In the 1990s retail status declined and facing competition from out of town retailers. Queen Square vacant for 2 decades. In 2004, construction began on the redevelopment of Paradise Street, Chavasse Park, bus station and NCP car park.

In 2008 Liverpool One opened and was a £1billion regeneration scheme. 4400 permanent jobs were created and 3300 construction jobs created. Investment was made by Grosvenor Group, Urban Splash, Wilkinson Eyre and Beetham Organisation.

Improvements included redevelopment of 42 hectares and more than 160 shops. 2 flagship stores (John Lewis and Debenhams), 600 apartments, 3000 car parking spaces, 2 new hotels, 14 screen cinema plus new restaurants and transport bus interchange. Met Quarter has 46 units including brands such as Hobbs. Keys Court includes shops such as Teb Baker and the largest TopShop outside London. Museum of London which cost £65million.

SUCCESS: Moved from 15th to 5th in retail league and outperforms places such as the Arndale Centre. 2012 footfall was 26,179,528 with an improvement of the surrounding area waterfront. Catchment population has rose from 1.3 to 1.9million.

FAILURES: Empty units in Church, Bold, Lime and Ranelagh St. Gentrification has outpriced locals in Kings Docks. Alienated local small businesses.

SUSTAINABILITY: History of Liverpool is embedded in the design of Liverpool One, so it promotes local history and culture.

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Gentrification (Notting Hill)

Known as a inner city area of deprevation. There has been a number of riots in the 1950s and 70s. Last 30 years gentrification has took place. Desirable area for families and homes can cost more then Mayfair. The media is responsible for a lot of today's gentrification. Huge tourist attraction due to the Notting Hill carnival, over 1million people visit each year, and Portobello Road market. Portland road most gentrified street.  

TRELLICK TOWER: Built in 1973 but became known for its crime in the 80s. Nowadays it is a more safe building with the installation of a concierge and extra security. Grade II listed in 1998.

BENEFITS: Stabilising a decling area and a greater social mix in the area. The area looks better and there are more employment opportunites. Residents have a greater purchasing power. Crime rates have reduced and there has been an increase in property value.

PROBLEMS: A lot of displacement and friction in the area due to different social groups. Rentable properties low due to a lot being sold. Changes in local services.  

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Out-of-town retail park (Trafford Centre)

Opened in 1998. Built on a brownfield site, 5 miles west of Manchester. Cost £600million to complete. Next to the M60 with easy access to the M602. 5.3million people live within 45 minute drive. Estimated £13bn retail expenditure.

10,000 free parking spaces with the latest addition Barton Square, including Next Home. 230 stores (including John Lewis and Selfridges), 20-screen cinema, 18-lane bowling alley, Europe's largest food court with 60 restaurants/cafes and bars. Three Premier Inns making i attractive for mini breaks. Open until 10pm Monday to Friday, 8pm on Saturday and 6pm on Sunday. Trafford Quays has the Chill Factor, Airkix indoor skydiving centre, PlayGolf driving range, Powerleague Soccer Dome and David Lloyd Leisure Centre.

NEGATIVES: Most people who use the centre drive, causing congestion and pollution (e.g. Christmas) and has an impact on shopping in surrounding towns. Fewer people travel to these town centres because they can not compete. Altrincham has suffered the most- 37% of shops were vacant in 2010 (3 times the national average).

POSITIVES: 8000 people are employed, recieve benefits such as health care and childcare vouchers. Work experience for local school students. Supports local community projects and charities. Offers a wide range of services, attracts more customers and economic benefits.  

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