Multi-Store Model of Memory - Studies

The studies of the Multi-Store Model of Memory, including encoding, duration and capacity of the STM and LTM

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Peterson & Peterson

DURATION OF THE STM

Laboratory Experiment

Repeated Measures Design

3 letterTrigrams with 3 second intervals, increasing by 3 each time (3,6,9,12,15,18)

During the interval, participants are asked to count back in 3's from a 3 digit number

Once the word "TRIGRAM" is seen they must recall the 3 leter trigram

FOUND THAT:

People could still remember the Trigram after 18 seconds of seeing it. STM duration is up to 18 seconds long.

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Bahrick (1975)

DURATION OF THE LTM

Natural Experiment

Repeated Measures Design

392 Participants of an American High School

1. Recall: name as many people as possible 2. Recognition by name 3. Recognition by photo

FOUND THAT:

After 47 years of graduation, less than 20% accuracy recall, and over 60% recognition accuracy.

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Conrad (1964)

ECODING OF THE STM:

Laboratory Experiment

Individual Groups

Showed participants a list of 6 consontants which were viewed for less than a second. P's had to write down what they remember.

FOUND THAT:

People made acoustic mistakes; getting similarly sounding letters mixed. Proves that the STM encodes acoustically if the mistakes are acoustic.

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Baddeley (1966)

ENCODING OF THE LTM:

Laboratory Experiment

Individal Groups

Showed participanta a list of descriptive words for 20 seconds. After 20 seconds, the words were taken away, and they had to recall as many as they could remember.

FOUND THAT:

People made misrakes with words of similar meaning, eg; BIG for LARGE, etc. This means that the LTM encodes the meaning of words, or semantically.

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Jacobs

CAPACITY OF THE STM

Laborratory Experiment

Repeated Measures Design

Participants were asked to recall a digit span of numbers that kept expanding each time from 4 numbers up to 10. For example:

1876 ... 98453 .... 067452 .... 8765238 .... etc....

FOUND THAT:

The average people managed was 7 +/- 2 items (numbers)

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