Multi store memory model


Why is our memory important?

. To remember tactics previously used which were successful

. To help learn new skills

. To think back to simular situations which allows you to learn from past experiences and to decide if you should do it again

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Define encoding

It is the convertion of information into codes including visual, auditary and semantic.

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Define retrieval

It is where stored information from your memeory is recovered.

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Define storage

Retaining infromation over a period of time. 

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What does the speed of retrieval/decoding depend o

It is based off how well learnt the information is so when was it used last and has it be practiced in order to retain the information. Also, it depends on how much information was stored in the long term memory because if it is a lot the information is harder to retain so information must be organised by chunking so it is esasier to remember and understand.

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What are the 6 phases of the short term memory?

1. Pereception occurs of the significant infromation (cues) and what needs to be done 

2. The STM has a limited capacity of between 6 to 9 peices of information

3. Info is encoded into the long term memory where it is stored in catergories of visual, auditary and semantic

4. Motor programmes of how to do a skill required in the current situation are retrieved and decoded back to the STM

5. Information is chunked so it is easeir to manage and remember

6. A decision is made and sent to the muscles

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Describe what happens if a rugby player is being c

1. The rugby player has the ball in their hand and is using their perception by judging how far away the goal posts are and how fast the defender is on if they should kick the balll to prevent being tackled.

2. One of the charcteristics of the short term memory is that it has a limited capacity so this information about the defender, the pitch any surrounding team mates is only held there for 30 seconds. Therefore, the rugby player must remmember how they kicked the ball high enough and with enough power without stopping running last time.

3. The rugby player sends for kicking the ball through the goal posts whilst running codes to be fetched from the long term memory.

4. A motor programme stored from last time they did the skill in a game situation is retrieved and decoded back to the short term memory.

5. The information is then chunked so it is easier to remember and replicate again by perfroming the skill in satges.

6. The decision is made to instead of carrying on running the athlete should kcik the ball through the goal post

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What is the role of the long-term memory?

. To store motor programmes 

. It has an unlimited capacity so it stores all past experiences

. Information from the short term memory is encoded and sorted into files

.The long-term memory retrieves useful older motor programmes 

. It decoded the infromation back to the short-term memory to help make a decision

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Identify strategies to improve retention:

Mental imagery - creating an image in your mind helps to remember what the skill you want to do looks like. 

Interesting and relevant information - only speak the impirtant cues when doing a demo so the athlete is not overloaded and forgets the vital information which is needed to do the skill. Also, the demonstrator must be attreactive, has a simular ability and is respected thsi means that atglete is more likely to pay attention and remmeber it.

Chunking information - This means the athlete only has to remmeber small bits of infromation which are grouped together at a time. This makes it is easier to remmeber and means they are less likely to make a mistake as they can remmber each vital bit of information.

Rehearsal - the athlete should practice the skill so that the motor programme in the long term memory is not forgotten.

Operant - the coach should give positive reinforcement like sweets in order to strengthen the S - R bond which means the athlete has a positive memory of the skill and is more likely to  remeber and replicate it successfully. 

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Define selective attention

It is where irrelevant infromation is ruled out but significant or useful information is filtered in and focused on.

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Define decoding

It is the process of comparison of past experiences and recognition of the infromation from the short-term memory.

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Short-term sensory store characteristics

. Unlimited capacity

. Contains sense- specific stores 

. Information is held there between a quarter and one second 

. It takes place subconsiously

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Short- term memory characteristics

. Only focuses on relevant infromation due to selective attention

. Limited capacity of approximatly 6 to 9 peices of information

. Infromation is held there for between 30 seconds to a minute

. The STM causes learning to happen permanently

. The DCR process hasppens in the STM;
Detection of a stimulant
Compare to info stored in the long - term memory
Recognises a relevant reponce

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Long - term memory characteristics

. Well learnt information which is practiced is stored here - or elese forgotten

. Used for comparison with incoming information from the STM

. Retrieves and decodes motor programmes stored there, to the short - term memory

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Evaluate the multi - store memory model


. Simple to understand

. Accurate as information is chunked and if infromation is not practcied then it is forgotten

. The long - term memory can be used to perform a skill which has not been used in a long time


. Too simple

. Not as effective as Lockhart's theroy of processing

. It doesn't acknowledge individual differences

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