- Created by: iloverevision12
- Created on: 28-11-19 11:43
- Dorment for over 500 years - erupted in 1991
- 2nd April 1991 - steam emission coming from mountain - monitored by PHIVOLCS
- 10km radios danger zone declared
- USGS arived with seismometers, tiltmeters and other equipment
- monitored activity of volcano - 40 - 150 earthquakes per day
- sulphur dioxide went from 500 tonnes to 5,000 tonnes per day in five weeks
- volcano erupted five time in 2,000 years = explosive eruption
1 of 5
Produced hazard maps to indicate the nature and extent of eruption
- Earthquake frequency increased and sulphur dioxide levels decreases – magma was holding gas – eruption would be highly explosive
- Evacuations were orders on the 3 June – 20,000 living within a 10km radius, 7th June – 120,000 people living within a 18km radius
- Volcano erupted on 15th June – 6 days after the last evacuation
2 of 5
Evaluation of preparation
- Hazard maps were accurate – all areas affected were predicted to be affected
- Small numbers killed – around 850 million
- USGS/PHIVOLS estimates –
- 5,000 to 20,000 lives saved – predictions and evacuations
- 20 of 20,000 Aeta highlanders living on volcano killed
- Monitoring cost - $1.5million, Evacuations - $1.5million (less than expected)
- Hazard maps underestimated the extent of the hazards – map predicted ash would fall over a 40km radius but it travelled 65km in places.
- Unfortunate coincidence of Typhoon Yunga – heavy rains increased weight on buildings causing more damage than expected.
3 of 5
Evaluation of immediate reponse
- National Disaster Coordinating mobilised to aid the evacuation, rescue and relief response – included providing health and basic education in evacuation centres.
- Health advisories issued to inform people of how to deal with ash – fine particles of ash could lead to eye irritation or asthma attacks
- Disease was a major issue in evacuation centres – around 600 of 850 deaths result as disease. Example – 30,000 people used Amoranto Velodrome, other relocated to shanty towns in cities like Angles – disease spread.
4 of 5
Evaluation of responce long term
- System set up to monitor the vibrations of passing lahars and warn of lahars. This system saves hundreds of lives – warnings enabled to be sounded for most major lahars but not all at Pinatubo 1991
- Evacuees needed resettled and helped to re-establish their livelihoods. June 1991 – government set up Task Force Mt Pinatubo – 6-year mandate, 10-billiuon-peso fund. This was to assist establishment of resettlement centres, provide employment and livelihood opportunities for victims and repair damage to infrastructure.
- Engineers effort to tap lahars behind levees and dams failed
- Dozens of people killed by lahars since 1991 – especially on Pasig-Potrero river three major lahars occurred – 1991, 1992 and 19941
5 of 5