Mozart: Symphony No. 40 in G minor

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Melody

Melody

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Melody

  • Well proportioned/balanced and graceful melody lines
  • Regular (periodic) phrases/4+4 bars
  • Contrasting melodies as first and second subjects
  • Motif of first subject developed in central section (development)
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Harmony and Tonality

Harmony and Tonality

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Harmony and Tonality

  • Harmony is largely diatonic
  • Functional harmony/based on chords I, II, IV, V (V7) and VI
  • Some chromatic chords
  • Diminished 7th used as a chromatic chord
  • Perfect cadences define keys
  • Music modulates to related/unrelated keys
  • First subject in G minor
  • Second subject in relative major B flat
  • Second subject in recapitulation is tonic (G minor)
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Texture

Texture

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Texture

  • Main texture is homophonic
  • Come dialogue between strings and woodwind
  • Oboes and bassoons often provide harmonic filling
  • Doubling of parts
  • Use of octaves
  • Orchestral textures are varied throughout the movement
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Structure

Structure

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Structure

  • Sonata form
  • Exposition, development and recapitulation sections
  • Contrast of two subjects/themes
  • Bridge section between first and second subjects (for modulation)
  • Exposition often repeated
  • Ends with a coda
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Instrumentation

Instrumentation

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Instrumentation

  • Classical orchestra
  • Strings
  • Seven woodwind players of one flute, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons
  • Brass section is two horns (in B flat and G)
  • No trumpets or timpani used in this work
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