# MOVEMENT ANALYSIS

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## TYPES OF LEVERS

Fulcrum = the fixed point at which the lever turns or is supported. Also called the 'axis'.

Load = the weight or 'resistance' that the lever must to move

Effort = the force required to move the load. Also called the 'force'.

• First class: fulcrum midway between load and effort (e.g. line-out in rugby)
• Second class: load between fulcrum and effort (e.g. press up)
• Third class: effort between load and fulcrum (e.g. paddling in a kayak)

Mechanical advantage measures the efficiency of a leaver.

Effort arm - the distance from the effort to the fulcrum

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## BASIC MOVEMENTS

• Flexion: decrease in the angle of bones at a joint. e.g. knee - before kicking a ball
• Extention: increase in the angle of bones at a joint. e.g. knee - whilst kicking a ball
• Abduction: movement of a bone or limb away from the midline of the body. e.g. arms & legs - outward star jump
• Adduction: movement of a bone or limb towards the midline of the body. e.g. arms & legs - inward star jump
• Dorsiflexion: movement at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases the angle. e.g. ankles - squat
• Plantar flexion: movement at the ankle joint that points the toes and increases the angle. e.g. ankles - jump
• Rotation: a circular movement around a joint/axis. e.g. shoulder - bowling in cricket
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## PLANES OF MOVEMENT AND AXES OF ROTATION

• Plane = an imaginary line that splits the body in two and depicts the direction of movement.
• Axis = an imaginary straight line through the body which it rotates around.
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