Definition of motivation
Motivation is the reason of doing something. For example for:
- Enjoy being with other people
- For a sense of status / importance
- To prevent boredom
- To satisfy ambition
He was the first person to analyse the management of workers
His 'scientific approach' was to:
- Select workers to perform a task
- Observe them, and then note the key elements
- Record the time taken to do each part of the task
- Train all workers to do the task the quickest way
- Supervise workers to ensure they use this method
- Pay workers on the basis of results
The 'two-factor theory' suggested that people's needs at work break down into two:
- Motivators such as achievement and recognition for achievement, which can provide sustained jobs satisfaction (a passion for the job)
- Hygiene factors such as pay, status and working conditions, which are quiclkly taken for granted when they are satisfactory, but resented bitterly when unsatisfactory
Job enrichment comes when people are responsible for a complete unit of work and trusted to get on with it, pay should be on a salary basis, with no distractions caused by bonus systems.
Founded the 'hierarchy of needs' suggested that everyone goes through the stages need, starting with the need for food (money), then progressing through craving for safety (job security), social contact and status.
Then, once all these other conditions are in place, a challenging, interesting job can allow for self-actualisation.