Types of motivation


  • Accomplishments - Athletes are more motivated to improve performance.
  • Stimulation - Athletes experience the adrenaline rush making them feel good.
  • Knowledge - Athletes wish to improve their knowledge to make their own performance even better.


  • Being motivated by external factors such as money or trophies.
  • Tangible rewards - Rewards that are physical.
  • Intangible rewards - Rewards that are non physical.
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Need Achievement Theory

The two categories:

  • NACH (Need to achieve)
  • NAF (Need to avoid failure)

NACH Athletes:

  • Not afraid to fail
  • Are persistent
  • Look for challenges
  • Take risks
  • Value feedback

NAF Athletes:

  • Are afraid to fail
  • Give up easily
  • Avoid challenges
  • Do not want feedback
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Achievement Goal Theory

The two types of orientations for success:

  • Task orientation
  • Ego / outcome orientation

Task orientated athletes want to improve their ability and have a significant importance on learning. They compare their own performce with their previous performance and focuses on personal improvement.

Ego / outcome orientated athletes are focused on winning and being the best. They compare their performance against other athletes and want to prove their ability to others.

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Self - Determination Theory

Self determination considers:

  • The motivation behind choices.
  • Suggests that athletes are motivated because of their own behaviours.
  • Focuses on intrinsic motivation within an athlete.

The three basic needs of humans:

  • Competence - The need to successfully complete a task to the required quality.
  • Relatedness - The need to have close relationships with others.
  • Autonomy - The need to have control over what is happening in our lives.
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Weiners attribution theory

An athelte or coach might explain success or failure in terms of three categories.

Is the reason:

  • Stable?
  • Unstable?

Is the reason:

  • Under control?                                                                         
  • Not under control?                                                                              

Does the reason come from something:

  • Internal?
  • External?   
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