- Moral realism and moral relativism
- Themes: moving from external to internal control and moving from actions based on objecctive consequences to judging on basis of intentions
- Factors effecting morl development: Cognitive development, parents and equal status contact.
- Lickona-found a positive correlation between cognitive development and level of moral development.
- Constanzo-6yr old didnt see intentions of an event but a 10yr old did see them.
- Nelson- had 4 stories, and showed that 3yr old children could see intentions
- His method was cognitively demanding
- He had a Bias small sample
- Walster-adults blame others for their mistakes even when they know its their fault.
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- 3 levels - preconventional, conventional and post conventional.
- Heinz Dilemma- DRUG
- Peter, Really, Gets, Angry, Some, Evenings
- Punishment, Rewards, GoodBoy/Girl, Authority, Social Contact, Ethical Principle
- Alexeio and Norris- showed in convicted men from ages 16-21 they're moral reasoning was much lower so supports Kohlbergs stages of the ethical principle
- Kohlbergs work has generated much more interest into this field
- Walkers longitudinal study-37% of p's and 62% of kids progressed a stage after the 2yr period. 945 did not go back a stage.
- Dilemma lacks ecological Validity
- Gilligan says that he is bias against women
- Turiel- development was gradual and not in distinct stages but people develope the domains-moral transgressions, breaches of convention, breaking of personal rules(Meg Took Baby Catherines Black Pony)
- Moran and Joniak- Language ability may effect results as they cannot voice their opinions properly.
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- Two orientations-morality of care and morality of justice
- 3 levels in MOC- self interest, self sacrifice and universal care
- Gilligan interviewed 29 pregnant women facing dilemma of abortion.
- Gilligan and Attanucci- 2hour interview, 35% of women in MOC and 2% of men in MOC, 65% men were in MOJ and 29% of women were in MOJ(sex differences)
- Looked into women when Kohlberg ahd ignored them.
- Dilemma was Ecologically Valid
- Ethical manner, did not harm participants
- Bias towards men as did not ask men in her dilemma their views
- Walker found no differences in morality of men or women.
- Jaffee and Hyde- 180 studies only showed a slight difference between men and women in the morality of care.
- Most research has failed to illustrate her point.
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- 5 stages- Hedonistic, Needs, Approval, Empathic and Strong Internalised Values
- (Harriet Never Asks Emos Silly Things)Overall becoming less concerned about the self and start to gain a sense of responsibility.
- Prosocial Dilemma-Girl fallen over on the way to a Party! Scores out of 16 on answer. Younger scored lower(put their own needs first) Older scored higher(thought of the girls needs)
- First psychologist to look at prosocial behaviour
- Gains validity as it looks at the idea that moral development is related to age.
- Cross-cultural support-she believes that moral reasoning depends on the culture and context.(unlike kohlberg)
- Dilemma not ecologically valid because it is hypothetical.
- More descriptive than theoretical because there are no precise stages.
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- Distributive justice-(dilemma about sharing candy bars in a group after selling pictures) younger kids focused on what they wanted, 5-7yr olds wanted to share equally, 7+ showed consideration of merit.
- Three Levels-Personal Gain, Equality and Benevolence.
- McGillicudy de Lisa- similar dilemma, results didnt change for neediness and no sex differences adn equality was most important.
- Provided a clearer description of distribuitve justice than Piaget
- Cross cultural research in Sweden and Zaire supports findings
- Dilemma is ecologically valid as could happen to the children.
- Didn't account for language skills as Damons method by interview was cognitively demanding
- Paintings dilemma may not have predictive vaildity as does not reflect how children share in the real world.
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