A2 psyB morality piaget, kohlberg, eisenberg, damon, gilligan and freud

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  • Moral realism and moral relativism
  • Themes: moving from external to internal control and moving from actions based on objecctive consequences to judging on basis of intentions
  • Factors effecting morl development: Cognitive development, parents and equal status contact.



  • Lickona-found a positive correlation between cognitive development and level of moral development.
  • Constanzo-6yr old didnt see intentions of an event but a 10yr old did see them.
  • Nelson- had 4 stories, and showed that 3yr old children could see intentions 
  • His method was cognitively demanding
  • He had a Bias small sample
  • Walster-adults blame others for their mistakes even when they know its their fault.


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  • 3 levels - preconventional, conventional and post conventional.
  • Heinz Dilemma- DRUG
  • Peter, Really, Gets, Angry, Some, Evenings 
  • Punishment, Rewards, GoodBoy/Girl, Authority, Social Contact, Ethical Principle


  • Alexeio and Norris- showed in convicted men from ages 16-21 they're moral reasoning was much lower so supports Kohlbergs stages of the ethical principle
  • Kohlbergs work has generated much more interest into this field
  • Walkers longitudinal study-37% of p's and 62% of kids progressed a stage after the 2yr period. 945 did not go back a stage. 
  • Dilemma lacks ecological Validity
  • Gilligan says that he is bias against women
  • Turiel- development was gradual and not in distinct stages but people develope the domains-moral transgressions, breaches of convention, breaking of personal rules(Meg Took Baby Catherines Black Pony)
  • Moran and Joniak- Language ability may effect results as they cannot voice their opinions properly. 


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  • Two orientations-morality of care and morality of justice
  • 3 levels in MOC- self interest, self sacrifice and universal care
  • Gilligan interviewed 29 pregnant women facing dilemma of abortion. 


  • Gilligan and Attanucci- 2hour interview, 35% of women in MOC and 2% of men in MOC, 65% men were in MOJ and 29% of women were in MOJ(sex differences)
  • Looked into women when Kohlberg ahd ignored them.
  • Dilemma was Ecologically Valid
  • Ethical manner, did not harm participants
  • Bias towards men as did not ask men in her dilemma their views
  • Walker found no differences in morality of men or women. 
  • Jaffee and Hyde- 180 studies only showed a slight difference between men and women in the morality of care. 
  • Most research has failed to illustrate her point.
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  • 5 stages- Hedonistic, Needs, Approval, Empathic and Strong Internalised Values
  • (Harriet Never Asks Emos Silly Things)Overall becoming less concerned about the self and start to gain a sense of responsibility.
  • Prosocial Dilemma-Girl fallen over on the way to a Party! Scores out of 16 on answer. Younger scored lower(put their own needs first) Older scored higher(thought of the girls needs)


  • First psychologist to look at prosocial behaviour
  • Gains validity as it looks at the idea that moral development is related to age.
  • Cross-cultural support-she believes that moral reasoning depends on the culture and context.(unlike kohlberg)
  • Dilemma not ecologically valid because it is hypothetical. 
  • More descriptive than theoretical because there are no precise stages.
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  • Distributive justice-(dilemma about sharing candy bars in a group after selling pictures) younger kids focused on what they wanted, 5-7yr olds wanted to share equally, 7+ showed consideration of merit.
  • Three Levels-Personal Gain, Equality and Benevolence.
  • McGillicudy de Lisa- similar dilemma, results didnt change for neediness and no sex differences adn equality was most important.


  • Provided a clearer description of distribuitve justice than Piaget
  • Cross cultural research in Sweden and Zaire supports findings
  • Dilemma is ecologically valid as could happen to the children.
  • Didn't account for language skills as Damons method by interview was cognitively demanding
  • Paintings dilemma may not have predictive vaildity as does not reflect how children share in the real world.
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