Moore 2013

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Moore 2013

Introduction 

  • Under the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act (2008) possession of extreme *********** is a criminal offence in England and Wales
  • Criminal responsibility lies in the producers and its consumers
  • The roots of the CJIA trace back to the death of Jane Longhurst in 2003 - strangled to death by her sexual partner who watched extreme ***********
  • Elias explains that the criminalisation of such behaviour can been seen in historical constructions of sex and sexuality
  • Sex became associated with shame and secrecy, it took place behind closed doors
  • As a result, bodily desires were removed from public life and shoved behind a closed door
  • Meaning that social taboos were born and what became acceptable sexual behaviour and desires were born
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Moore, 2013 - What is Extreme Pornography?

  • Notoriously difficult to define
  • Extreme *********** is defined as something that can be classed as an explicit image or act that has the intent to cause arousal PLUS; 
  • an act that threatens a person's life
  • an act that results or is likely to result in serious injury to one's ****, breasts or genitals
  • an act that involved sexual activity with a human corpse
  • and an act which shows a person having sexual intercourse or oral sex with an animal (dead or alive)

This above info is from the CJIA (2008)

Difficulties with the definition come from lack of explanation by the act 

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Moore, 2013 - Gender & Extreme Pornography

  • The discourses that underpin the criminalisation of extreme *********** perpetuate gendered understandings of heteronormative sexuality
  • The assumption implied by the CJIA (2008) is that males watch extreme *********** and are aroused by images of female submission
  • This then causes males to normalise female subordination through the consumption of extreme ***********
  • They are also desensitised to the victimisation of women
  • This view is based on the assumption that *********** causes sexual violence against women
  • And that sexual arousal is dangerous in the presence of men
  • This relates to traditional sexology
  • Krafft-Ebing claimed sexual behaviour and desire was something that manifested itself inside men and women
  • But a males sexual behaviour was difficult to control and female sexuality was only developed when in the company of men
  • The CJIA criminalises violent acts within sex even if consent is given
  • This is because you cannot legally consent to harm to your body
  • But you can in sports such as rugby
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Moore, 2013 - Gender & Extreme Pornography

  • The availability of *********** has meant that women are able to explore their sexuality and sexual desires
  • By doing this they are challenging constructions of female passivity and sexual dependency on men 
  • Women are able to access *********** in their own homes, providing them with an anonymous and private space where the can explore sexual fantasies without shame or fear of judgement
  • Women do fantasise about sexual submission and domination of others, extreme *********** allows women to explore such fantasies 
  • Allowing them to reject prescribed sexual roles they have been given 
  • This is something that the CJIA ignored because it was constructed under traditional categories surrounding women in society and nineteenth century sexology 
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