MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT ( 1955-1956)
- Buses in the south were segregated,front rows for white and back rows for black, however if there was no room then blacks had to give up their seat to whites.
- December 1 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man, she was arrested and fined $14.
- (MIA) was formed leader was MLK.
- Boycott hit bus companies hard majority of the passengers were black, they lost 65% of their revenue.
- King was fined $500 and sentenced to 1 year in prison however he served just 2 weeks due to overcorwding.
- 21st December 1956 Montgomery Bus Company desegregated buses
- Showed MLK leadership qualities
- significance of media involvement
- lengths to which white authorities would go to defend segregation
- importance of black customers
- SCLC was established.
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LITTLE ROCK CAMPAIGN (1957)
- Little Rock school enrolled nine black students
- Orval Local Govenor ordered National Guard to prevent them from getting in.
- president Eisenhower ordered Faubus to withdraw National Guards
- 25 September escourted by National Guard enrolled at Little Rock School.
- Faubus used his pwer to close Little Rock as a result 4000 students black and white were forced to find education elsewhere.
- Supreme Court ruled that it is illegal to prevent segrregation for any reason.
- Testing Supreme Court Rulings esuring de jure lead to de facto.
- Forced Eisenhower to accept desegreagation.
- Showed the extent of how white southerners opposed desegregation.
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GREENSBORO SIT-INS ( 1960)
- Happened in public places.
- February 1960 4 locl students entered a Woolworths store and sat in white only seats at the counter.
- 27 students on the second day.
- 300 by the 4th day
- store closed temporarily.
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- SIT INS FROM 1960-1961
- demonstrated ivil rights campaigns could spread quickly.
- media coverage.
- showed economic power of blacks
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FREEDOM RIDES (1961)
- Were designed to turn de jure to de facto.
- They were organised by CORE.
- Freedom riders were expected to meet violent oppositions and planned to use this to gain media attention.
- Local police were instructerd to not intervene when Ku Klux Klan threw fire bombs.
- Medics refused to intervene when white crowds beat the riders with baseball bats.
- They marked a new high point of co-operation within the civil rights movement as they involved CORE SNCC nad SCLC.
- They showed new Kennedy administration was sympathetic toward Civil rights.
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THE ALBANY MOVEMENT(1961-1962)
- SNCC targeted Albany Georgia.
- Chief Laurie pritchett studied the sturatagey of the protestors and adopted a new approach designed to deny them media attention.
- Local police to treat protestors with respect in public and to prevent RACIST VIOLENCE.
- further more king was arrested during this campaign
- Peaceful prtects did not always bring about change.
- led to divisions within the civil rights movement.
- King acknowledged that his tactics did not work.
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JAMES MERIDETH AND UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI(1962)
- Became the first black student at Mississppi
- However the govenor didn't allow him to enrol
- Supreme court backed Merideth.
- Govenor refused to provide Merideth woth protection and he was faced by a mob of white racist people.
- Kennedy sent Federal Troops to defend Merideth.
- Fights broke out and 2 protestors were killed
- He graduated with a degree in political science.
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