MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT

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  • Created by: Rupi
  • Created on: 24-03-13 18:50

MONTGOMERY BUS BOYCOTT ( 1955-1956)

  • Buses in the south were segregated,front rows for white and back rows for black, however if there was no room then blacks had to give up their seat to whites.
  • December 1 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man, she was arrested and fined $14.
  • (MIA) was formed leader was MLK.
  • Boycott hit bus companies hard majority of the passengers were black, they lost 65% of their revenue.
  • King was fined $500 and sentenced to 1 year in prison however he served just 2 weeks due to overcorwding. 
  • 21st December 1956 Montgomery Bus Company desegregated buses

SIGNIFICANCE

  • Showed MLK leadership qualities
  • significance of media involvement
  • lengths to which white authorities would go to defend segregation
  • importance of black customers
  • SCLC was established.
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LITTLE ROCK CAMPAIGN (1957)

  • Little Rock school enrolled nine black students
  • Orval Local Govenor ordered National Guard to prevent them from getting in. 
  • president Eisenhower ordered Faubus to withdraw National Guards
  • 25 September escourted by National Guard enrolled at Little Rock School.
  • Faubus used his pwer to close Little Rock as a result 4000 students black and white were forced to find education elsewhere.
  • Supreme Court ruled that it is illegal to prevent segrregation for any reason. 

SIGNIFICANCE

  • Testing Supreme Court Rulings esuring de jure lead to de facto. 
  • Forced Eisenhower to accept desegreagation
  • Showed the extent of how white southerners opposed desegregation. 
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GREENSBORO SIT-INS ( 1960)

  • Happened in public places.
  • February 1960 4 locl students entered a Woolworths store and sat in white only seats at the counter.
  • 27 students on the second day.
  • 300 by the 4th day
  • store closed temporarily.
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SNCC

  • SIT INS FROM 1960-1961
  • demonstrated ivil rights campaigns could spread quickly.
  • media coverage.
  • showed economic power of blacks
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FREEDOM RIDES (1961)

  • Were designed to turn de jure to de facto.
  • They were organised by CORE.
  • Freedom riders were expected to meet violent oppositions and planned to use this to gain media attention.
  • Local police were instructerd to not intervene when Ku Klux Klan threw fire bombs.
  • Medics refused to intervene when white crowds beat the riders with baseball bats. 

SIGNIFICANCE

  • They marked a new high point of co-operation within the civil rights movement as they involved CORE SNCC nad SCLC.
  • They showed new Kennedy administration was sympathetic toward Civil rights. 
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THE ALBANY MOVEMENT(1961-1962)

  • SNCC targeted Albany Georgia.
  • Chief Laurie pritchett studied the sturatagey of the protestors and adopted a new approach designed to deny them media attention.
  • Local police to treat protestors with respect in public and to prevent RACIST VIOLENCE.
  • further more king was arrested during this campaign

SIGNIFICANCE

  • Peaceful prtects did not always bring about change.
  • led to divisions within the civil rights movement. 
  • King acknowledged that his tactics did not work.
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JAMES MERIDETH AND UNIVERSITY OF MISSISSIPPI(1962)

  • Became the first black student at Mississppi
  • However the govenor didn't allow him to enrol
  • Supreme court backed Merideth. 
  • Govenor refused to provide Merideth woth protection and he was faced by a mob of white racist people. 
  • Kennedy sent Federal Troops to defend Merideth.
  • Fights broke out and 2 protestors were killed
  • He graduated with a degree in political science. 
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