Module C7- Further Chemistry

Alkanes, Alcohols, Carboxylic acids, Esters, Making Esters, Energy Transference of Reactions, Catalysts and Bond Energies, Reversible Reactions, Analytical Procedure, Chromatography, Solution Conentrations, Titrations, The Chemical Industry, Production and Making Ethanol.

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Alcohols have an 'OH' group, and end in 'ol' methanol  and ethanol

Alcohols, Alkanes and water

Similarities- They're both good solvents (things dissolve in them). Differences- Ethanol is soluble in water, Alkanes are insoluble.  Ethanol boils at 78, water at 100. Ethanol is a liquid at room temperture. Methane and Ethane are gases at room temperature. Water is a liquid at room temperature.            

Alcohols are used as Solvents and Fuels in Manufacturing.

They can dissolve compounds like hydrocarbons and oil, which water cant , which makes them useful. Methanol is used as a starting point for other chemicals.

Ethanol is used in perfumes and aftershaves . Methylated spirit is ethanol mised with other chemicals and is used for cleaning in industry.

Pure ethanol can be mixed in petrol to conserve crude oil.                             

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Alcohol - Questions

What function group do alcohols have?

Name the first two alcohols you should know.

Name a similarity between alcohols, alkanes and water.

Name two differences between them.

Wha are alcohols used as in manufacturing?

How are methanol an ethanol linked to dissolving compounds?

Methanol can be used as a........................forother organic chemicals.

What is ethanol commonly used in?

Pure ethanol can be mixed conserve................................ .

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Methane- CH4                         Ethane- C2H6                   Propane- C3H8



Butane- C4H10

Alkane + oxygen = C02 and water.

Alkanes don't react with much. Their C-C and C-H bonds are unreactive.

They do not react with aqueous reagents.

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Alkanes- Questions

Alkanes are a family of?

Alkanes contain only ....................... bonds?

Name, represent, and state the molecular formula of the first four alkanes you should know.

What is the word formula for the combustion of an alkane in sufficient oxygen?

Write a balanced equation for the combustion of Propane.

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Functional group of 'COO'.

They re formed from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. Esterfication.

Alcohol + carboxylic acid = ester + water

Esters have pleasent smells and are found naturally in fruits, and used in sweets and other foodsas aromas and flavours.They are volatile, and therefore a good for perfumes.Ointments Solvets Plasticisers to make plastics more flexible.

Fats and Oils are Esters of Glycerol and Fatty Acids.

Glycerol is an alcohol.


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Esters- Questions

What functional group do Esters have?

State the word equation for an Esterfication reaction.

Name 5 things esters can be and are used for.

Explain is the link between fatty acids and esters.

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Carboxylic Acids.

Functional group is 'COOH' and their names end with '-anoic acid' eg. methanoic acid.

They react with alkalis, carbonates and reactive metals, just like any other acid.

Salts are formed in these recactions.

Metals make salt and hydrogen

alkalis make salt and water

carbonates make salt, water and carbon dioxode.

Carboxylic acids have strong tastes and smells. Its the reason your sweaty socks smell, and the reason corked wine tastes like is vinegar. Ethanoic acid is the vinegar you get atthe chippy.

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Carboxylic Acids- Questions

What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?

What do the acids names usually end in?

Carboxylic acids react with

metals = ?

carbonates= ?

alkalis= ?

Name a property, a process,  and a use, of a carboxylic acid.

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