Acids and bases 1
- Acids have a Ph of less than 7.
- Bases are the oxides and hydroxides of metals.
- soluble bases are called alkalis.
- alkalis have a Ph greater than 7.
Acids and bases (alkalis) are chemical opposites. dded together in the correct amount, they can cancel each other out.
This is called neutralisation. (PH 7)
Acid+ Base > Salt + Water
carbonates neutralise acids to produce a salt and water, but they also produce Carbon Dioxide gas. (CO2) Acid + Carbonate > Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
Acids and bases 2
The first name of a salt made by neutralisation comes from the first name of the base or carbonate used e.g.
- Sodium Hydroxide will make a Sodium salt..
- Copper Oxide will make a copper salt ..
The second name comes from the name of the acid used e.g.
- hydrochloric acid will produce a chloride salt
- sulfuric acid will produce a sulfate salt
- nitric acid will produce a nitrate salt...
Sulfuric acid- to clean metals before being painted or coated, to neutalise fertilisers & in car and motorbike batteries.
More on Neutralisation (Higher Tier)
Neutrlisation can be summarised by looking at what happens to the ions in the solutions:
alkalis in solution contain hydroxide ions, OH- (aq)
acids in solution contain hydrogen ions, H+ (aq)
Acid + base > Salt + water
Therefore Neutralisation can be described as..
H+ (aq) + OH- (aq)> H2O (l)