Module 1 - Cells

Organelles - Structure and function

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  • Created by: Nick
  • Created on: 05-05-10 17:20

Nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), golgi apparat

Nucleus - S - Largest organelle. Surrounded by a nuclear envelope. Made up of two membranes with fluid between them. Nuclear pores go through nuclear envelope which are large enough to allow relatively large molecules to enter. Dense spherical structure called the nucleolus, inside the nucleus.

F - Contains genetic info in DNA of chromosomes. (Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear envelope with pores for communication between nucleus + cytoplasm). Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes (which make proteins at the cytoplasm).

ER - S - Series of flattened membrane-bound sacs called cisternae. They are continuous with outer nuclear membrane. RER has ribosomes, SER doesnt.

F - RER transports proteins made on attached ribosomes to golgi apparatus. SER-Makes triglycerides (fats), phospholipids and cholesterol.

Golgi Apparatus - S - A stack of membrane-bound, flattened sacs.

F - Modifies and packages proteins, makes secretory vesicles and lysosomes.

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Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Lysosomes

Mitochondria - S - Spherical or sausage-shaped. They have two membranes separated by a fluid filled space (matrix). Inner membrane is highly folded to form cristae.

F - During aerobic respiration ATP is produced.

Chloroplasts - S - Only found in plant cells. They have two membranes separated by a fluid-filled space.Continuous inner membrane of flattened membrane sacs called thylakoids. Chlorophyll molecules present on the thylakoid membranes.

F - Site of photosynthesis

Lysosomes - S - Spherical sacs surrounded by a single celled membrane.

F - Contains powerful enzymes for destroying worn-out parts of cell and food particles. E.g. White blood cell lysosomes break down invading micro organisms.

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Ribosomes, Centrioles (Organelles without surround

Ribosomes - S - Tiny organelles. Some in cytoplasm and some bound to ER. Each robosome consists of two sub units.

F - The site where proteins are made. They take coded information (mRNA) from the nucleus and use it to assemble proteins from amino acids.

Centrioles - S - Small tubes of protein fibres (microtubules). There is a pair of them next to the nucleus in animal cells.

F - They take part in cell division. They form spindle fibres, which move chromosomes during nuclear division.

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Natalie Beard


The fonts a little small, perhaps try using bold or colour to empathise key words? One of the pictures on card 11 doesn't work either :) But aside from this, very nice resource! :)

Katie Craven


A lot of things are included which is really useful.

it is also short, very good for revision!!


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