modernity:

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Modernity:

Revolution  - more industrial goods being produced, housing conditions worse, greater opportunity of freedom of conscience.

Enlightnement - kick start of social science - when people started to question their traditional beliefs 

Democracy 

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Modernity:

Revolution  - more industrial goods being produced, housing conditions worse, greater opportunity of freedom of conscience.

Enlightnement - kick start of social science - when people started to question their traditional beliefs 

Democracy 

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Industrialism :

  • describes both industrialisation and the growth conviction that industrialisation will solve all of our problems. 
  • some social theories doubted this but others accepted the promise of industrialism while still finding plenty to criticise in the places where it took hold.
  • capitalism was also taken hold of humanity as well as industrialisation. 
  • Capitalism and industrialisation happened together in Europe and America but not the same degree anywhere else.
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Democracy:

  • last bit of modernity, and influence to kick start social science. 
  • Paine says that without government men are social and sufficently rational to recognise the law of nature that they should not interfere with the life, libery and property of other men. 
  • this is what Individualism is.
  • Left to get on with things like trade adn commerce. 
  • people know they need each other so respect each others rights.
  • treat fairly as its in their own interests also.

Paine:

  • supported the free market as well as democracy. 
  • if hes against government. 
  • Believes you may be lucky enough to have the right moral attitudes to take prosper in the free market but we are not all so lucky to have the experience, training to put right morals in our heads.
  • Government can make up for this and whay paine proposes (In 1791) is blue print for welfare state
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Continued:

  • proposes children up to age 14 get 6 months education a year by giving their parents a gran
  • soldiers and shopkeepers and others who fall on hard time will be supported by the state as of right. 
  • as all of us get old, we need welfare support beyond what we can provide ourselves.
  • Paine is thinking of all this as a Saftey Net when self-interest fails to protect people. 
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Bentham and Utilitarianism

  • people motivated by pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain
  • where as Paine the poor get a helping hand so they are able to determine their own fate - Bentham this is no longer neccessary.
  • its the pursit of pleasure and avoidance of pain that has landed people in the gutter - their choice.
  • to find out what the government should do you simply add up everyones preferences - giving equal qeight to them all - and find out how to give most people what they want. 
  • not meaning running a welfare state for the poor by getting taxes off everyone else with money.
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