Theory of Planned Behaviour
-Suggests an individuals decision to engage or not engage in any behaviour can be directly predicted by their behavioural intentions
-These are formed by Perceived Behavioural Control, Attitudes and Subjective Norms.
-Collection of personal beliefs, formed through knowledge and experience.
-Education and information services can be important in influencing the formation of these beliefs and thus prevent initiation of addictive behaviours.
-Slater (2011) believed targeting attitudes may be key to the success of any campaing.
-How we think other people will view our behaviour
-Doesn't matter what they actually think; it's just what we believe they will think and how much we care. Formed through our experience, depend heavily on our (sub)group norms and are influenced by the media.
-In order to shape subjective norms to prevent initation, campaigners may provide actual data which targets norm beliefs or run programmes to help raise self-esteem which targets how much someone cares about what others think.
Theory of Planned Behaviour
Perceived Behavioural Control;
-Belief about the amount of control we have over our behaviour. TPB proposes that people with an internal locus of control and strong self-efficacy will be less likely to initate in addictive behaviours or be less likely to relapse
-Increased via support group modelling (Alcoholics annoymous), self help guides and practical tips (as used by the NHS Stop Smoking Campaign)
Successful Practical Applications;
-Particularly successful in informing campaigns designed to reduce initiation of behaviours such as smoking and alcohol consumption.
-Wilson and Kolander (2003) found that intention to smoke among school children was an extremely important factor in whether they took up the habit, which is strongly influenced by peer pressure and parental attitudes
-Child in a family or peergroup of smokers may think smoking is the norm, however most adolescents do not smoke, therefore exposure to these statistics should correct their subjective norm.
-Means the education and re-education of subjective norms should form part of any effective prevention campaign
-Many studies such as above, the 3 factors are assessed using self-report questionnaires and interviews, which are prone to a lack of accuracy and social desirability bias. For example, many people have a lack of awareness of how they would actually behave in a given situation
-Albarracin et al. (2005) - When filling out a questionnaire about behavioural intentions, it is impossible to anticipate the strong desires and emotions that constrain behaviour in real life
-This means the validity of such research can be undermined.
Support for TPB in Preventing Relapse;
-Godin et al. (2006) supports role of TPB in predicting smoking intentions and behaviours
-Participants surveyed using questionnaires and trained interviewers at the start of the study and then 6 months laters.
-Researchers found that perceived behavioural control was the most important predictor of ultimate human behaviour
-Study suggests that promotional programmes should help smokers develop their internal locus and the willpower required to give up their addiction