Model Answers P1 and P2


What is ionic bonding?

  • An electrostatic attraction between ions of opposite charge
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Features of a homologous series

  • M1)  Similar chemical properties
  • M2)  Trend in physical properties
  • M3)  Same functional group 
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Why any ionic compound has a high m.p./b.p.

  • M1)  Attraction between ions is very strong
  • M2)  Lots of ions in a giant lattice structure
  • M3)  Therefore a lot of energy needed to break bonds
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Why an ionic solid does not conduct electricity bu

  • In solids no ions are free to move while in liquids ( molten/ aqueous) they can move / be mobile
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Metal bonding and structure

  • Positive ions are surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons creating a strong electrostatic attraction between them
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Why does a metal conduct electricity?

  • It has a sea of delocalised electrons that are free to move
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Why are metals malleable?

  • Metal ions are arranged in layers that can slide over each other
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Why does a compound have a low b.p./m.p.?

  • It has weak intermolecular forces therefore little energy required to overcome
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Importance of cracking

  • M1)  Greater supply of long chain hydrocarbons
  • M2)  Higher demand for short chain hydrocarbons
  • M3)  The alkenes produced can be used to make polymers/ plastic etc. Short chain - saturated - are used as fuels
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Bromine water with alkene and alkane

  • Alkene = Orange to colourless
  • Alkane = No change unless UV light is present, even then reaction is slow
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Observations of metals in acid ( specifically K an

  • M1)  Solid dissolves/ dissapears
  • M2)  Bubbles/ fizzing as gas forms

Specific to K and Na

  • M3)  Sodium darts around and melts into a ball
  • M4)  Potassium burns with a lilac flame
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Why do covalent compounds not conduct?

  • They have NO charged particles
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Why does increase in temprature result in a faster

  • Particles have more energy so there are more collisions per second, they have an energy greater than activation energy therefore more collisions per second
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What is a redox reaction?

  • M1)  Both reduction and oxidation take place at the same time 
  • M2)  [Mention specific to the question what is reduced and oxidised]
  • M3)  [Say why it is, e.g. A loses oxygen which is gained by B]
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Why would you repeat an experiment?

  • M1)  To obtain concordant results
  • M2)  To identify anomalous results
  • M3)  To obtain a mean of concordant results
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What is a catalyst

  • M1)  A substance that increases the rate of reaction
  • M2)  And remains chemically unchanged/ not used up
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What does a catalyst do?

  • M1)  Provides an alternative reaction pathway
  • M2)  Which lowers the activation energy
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Lower temp or energy change than expected?

  • Often the reason is heat/ energy is lost to surroundings
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