Mnemonics for DNA.

Lots of different Mnemonics to help DNA and all that sort of stuff sink in.

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Remembering Trancription


1. Gene unwinds + unzips.

2. RNA Nucleotides bind by using RNA Polymerase.

3. 2 Phosphates are relased.

4. MRNA is complementary and relased from the DNA and passes out of the nucleus.

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Remembering the assembling of a polypeptide.

Red Chickens Peck Rainbow Snails.

1. mRNA binds to a Ribosome. 2 condons are attached and are exposed.

2. A second tRNA, binds to the second exposed Codon with its complementary anticodon.

3. A Peptide Bond is formed from a reaction catalysed from an enzyme in the small ribosomal subunit.

4.  The Ribosome then moves along the mRNA reading the next codon. A third tRNA brings another set of amino acids and allows the first set to leave.

5. The chain keeps growing until a Stop codon is reached.

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Parts of the Lac Operon, that you wil need to know

Remember Bacterium are the PROS at processing lactose.

  • Promoter region
  •  Regulator Gene
  • Operator region
  • Structural genes.
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Cell Death sequence.


1. Breaking down of the cytoskeleton.

2. Dense cytoplasm with tightly packed organelles.

3. Blebs are formed from the changing of the cell membrane.

4. Fragments of DNA are formed from the breaking of the nuclear envelope.

5. Phagocytosis occurs to the vesicle pieces left over.

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Pigs Munch Apple Tarts Twice.

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, this sequence occurs twice.  (meiosis 1 and meiosis 2).

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Noting the differences between dominant, codominan

Dominant characterics are always there is at least one allele of that kind (remember men always see Pamela Anderson with her DDs).

Recessive alleles must have 2 of the same for the phentype to be present (remember you always need a pair of shoes in order to wear them).

Codominant is where both alleles are expressed equally (rememeber teams want to work together despite being different).

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Genotype and Phenotype

Phenotype are the characteristics that you can see (think that everyone likes to see the latest iPhone).


Genotype is the genetic make-up of an organism. (Remember Genotype and genetic both start with the same 3 letters. :-O )

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