Convivencia- toleration, living together. This was the state of spain prior to F&I's reign
Mudejars-moors in christian territory
moors-muslims from North Africa
Moriscos- converted moors
Conversos- converted jews.
Did F&I seek political unity, or ethnic cleansing?
F&I's policy towards the Moors
- After the conquest of Granada, Talavera tried to convert muslims through preaching, and slow assimilation into christian society
- He respected their culture and would use arabic in religious services.
- many felt this was too slow, so harsher policies were introduced
- 1000s then converted through fear, not change in faith
- there were heavy taxes on muslims in 95 and 99
- Complulsory conversions and taxes provoked a revolt in 1499 which was only appeased by Tendilla and Talavera
- Cisneros used these revolts to claim moors had forfeited their rights. By 1501, moors in Granada;
- forced to abandon their culture
- couldn't carry arms
- There was a bonfire of arabic books
- in 1502 they were told to convert or leave.
- Ferdinand sypathised with Tendilla and therefore in Aragon for a generation there were no attacks on the mudejars
F&I's policy towards the Moors continued
- Islam began to slowly vanish from castilian territory.
- From 1511, various decrees attacked the cultural identity of Moriscos
- use of arabic, clothes, jewellery,circumcision, ritual animal slaughter all banned
- These were all outlawed by 1526 in Granada
- During the Reconquista
- the entire moorish population of malaga enslaved 1487
- 100000 moors killed
- 200000 fled
- catilian nobles flocked to Granada for land and spioils
F&I's policy towards the Jews
- 1480: The cortes of Toledo called that jews where a distinctive badge, the Aljamas be walled off and ther jews to live in ghettos
- 1482: partial expulsion of Jews from Andalucia
- 1483: Jews expelled from various southern cities
- The inquisition further intensified anti-semitism
- 1492 Jews given 4 months to be baptised or leave
- 50000/80000 left to Portugal, North Africa and Itay
- The sultan of Turkey 'marvelled' at this as Jews were 'the wealth of spain'. though of course, many didn't leave and stayed in the same jobs, now as christians.
- The expulsion was ironic as it probably doubled the false converso problem
- The expulsion was not necessarily racist, F and I had jews and conversos as collaberators
- A cult called 'purity of the blood' began.
- The inquisition made spaniards more wary of other religions
F&I's policy towards the Jews Continued
- 1480s institutions adopted statutes of the Limieza-
- college of san bartoleme
- The inquisition made it clear that heresy was in the blood (1484) when they banned descendents of those it condemned from holding public office.
- Economic Motives?
- No,the 'jews the wealth of spain'
- No, many Jews were pooor and disadvantaged
- No, property gains hardly covered costs of running the inquisition
- Political motives?
- Yes, conformity made people easier to control
- no, there was no possibility of a jewish invasion#
- Religious Motives?
- Yes, Isabella was a devout catholic
- she insisted on religious conformity and even purity of the blood
- No, the new christians remained persecuted.
Charles' policy towards the Moors
- 1520-22:At the start of his reign Moors had been involved in the revolt of the Germania.
- 1525, Moors banned in Aragon
- 1529 Aragonese Moriscos are given 30yrs(a generation) to become fully catholic
- In his reign Charles had many problems with the Ottoman empire and feared a revolt in Spain becasue of the proximity of the Barbary Pirates and North Africa.
Philip's policy towards the Moors
- Philip was incredibly devout
- 'I do not wish, nor do i desire to be the ruler of heretics'
- The council of trent in 1562 created the tridentine decrees, that lead to a new reforming tendency.
- Philip was seen as a champion of the catholc faith, one of the leaders of the catholic reformation
- This meant that Philip wanted more than ever to root out false Moriscos.
- In 1567, 3 new decrees gave the moriscos 3 years to leave spain
- reasons were political;
- the Turks had been launching offensives in the med
- a fear of 'the enemy within'
- 1568: Morisco revolt that lasted 2 years.
- In response, 50000 moriscos were expelled from granada and resettled all over Spain, so that they could not group together