• Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 11-05-14 10:42


Sources - dairy, fish with small bones, fortified bread and soy

Functions - bone health, muscular, neurological and endocrine systems, peak bone mass (prevention of osteoporosis), muscle contraction and blood clotting

RNI - 700mg/d

Additional requirements - increase during growth and lactation

Defieciency - rickets, osteoporosis

Toxicity - Calcification

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Sources - most food, high in manufactured foods, sodium + chloride = salt

Function - maintaince of normal BP and normal function of musle and nerves

RNI - 1600mg/d (often exceeded)

Deficiency - Rare

Toxicity - Increased risk of HTN, oedema, renal disease

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Source - most foods

Function - healthy teeth and bones, nerve activities 

Deficiency - neuromuscular dysfunction, issue for older adults

Toxicity - rare

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Source - most foods

Function - electrolyte balance

Deficiency - usually through loss

Toxicity - cardiac arrest

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No recommendations

No defieciency or toxcity

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Sources - red meat, dairy products, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats

Function - strong bones and teeth, helps release energy from food

RNI - 550mg/d

Deficiency - loss of appetite, fatigue, muscle weakness

Toxicity - diarrhoea, GI distress, taking chronic doses can reducethe amount of Ca in the body (bones are more likely to fracture). 

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Sources - meat, liver (haem iron), vegetables, cereals (non-haem iron)

Function - oxygen and electron transportation and storage, co-enzyme

RNI - men 8.7mg/d; women 14.8mg/d

Additional requirmenets - increase during pregnancy, lactation and menstruation

Deficiency - anaemia; fatigue, pale skin

Toxicity - deposited in tissues and can form free radicals 

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Sources - found widely in the environment, tea, fish, drinking water can be a good course, toothpaste and dental products

Function - formation of strong teeth, increase resistance to tooth decay

Deficiency - dental caries

Toxicity - Mottling and pitting of the teeth, increase bone density, calcification

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Sources - most foods

Functions - catalytic, structural, regulatory

Deficiency - growth retardation,fatigue

Toxicity - impaired Cu utilisations and impaired Ca absorption

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Sources - Liver, legume, nuts

Functions - Part of many enzymes, bone health

Deficiency - Neutropenia, bone fractures, anaemia

Toxicity - Rare

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Source - fortified salt, seafood, seaweed

Functions - thyroid hormone synthesis (essential for normal growth and development), particularly foetal development

Deficiency - goitre (pressure on the windpipe, oesophagus and blood supply), hypothyrodydism (sleepiness, coldness, apathy, lack of energy, in pregnancy can cause miscarriages, still births), cretinism (hypothyroid; growth stunted, mental handicap; neurological; brain and neurological system damaged)

Toxicity - rare

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Source - Meat, liver, yeast, grains

Function - cofactor for insulin

Deficiency - glucose intolerance

Excess - Nausea, diarrhoea

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Source - foods of animal origin

Function - part of vitamin B12

Deficiency - Pernicious anaemia

Toxicity - none

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Source - vegetable in alkaline, Mo rich soils

Function - cofactor

Deficiency - decrease urea production

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Source - Meat, green veg

Function - glutathione peroxidase

Deficiency - Cardio-myopathy

Excess - hair loss, dermatitis 

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Source - green vegetables

Function - bone formation and glycoprotein production

Deficiency - poor growth and collagen formation

Excess - rare

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