Minerals

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Bethany
  • Created on: 11-05-14 10:42

Calcium

Sources - dairy, fish with small bones, fortified bread and soy

Functions - bone health, muscular, neurological and endocrine systems, peak bone mass (prevention of osteoporosis), muscle contraction and blood clotting

RNI - 700mg/d

Additional requirements - increase during growth and lactation

Defieciency - rickets, osteoporosis

Toxicity - Calcification

1 of 16

Sodium

Sources - most food, high in manufactured foods, sodium + chloride = salt

Function - maintaince of normal BP and normal function of musle and nerves

RNI - 1600mg/d (often exceeded)

Deficiency - Rare

Toxicity - Increased risk of HTN, oedema, renal disease

2 of 16

Magnesium

Source - most foods

Function - healthy teeth and bones, nerve activities 

Deficiency - neuromuscular dysfunction, issue for older adults

Toxicity - rare

3 of 16

Potassium

Source - most foods

Function - electrolyte balance

Deficiency - usually through loss

Toxicity - cardiac arrest

4 of 16

Sulphur

Proteins

No recommendations

No defieciency or toxcity

5 of 16

Phophorus

Sources - red meat, dairy products, fish, poultry, bread, rice, oats

Function - strong bones and teeth, helps release energy from food

RNI - 550mg/d

Deficiency - loss of appetite, fatigue, muscle weakness

Toxicity - diarrhoea, GI distress, taking chronic doses can reducethe amount of Ca in the body (bones are more likely to fracture). 

6 of 16

Iron

Sources - meat, liver (haem iron), vegetables, cereals (non-haem iron)

Function - oxygen and electron transportation and storage, co-enzyme

RNI - men 8.7mg/d; women 14.8mg/d

Additional requirmenets - increase during pregnancy, lactation and menstruation

Deficiency - anaemia; fatigue, pale skin

Toxicity - deposited in tissues and can form free radicals 

7 of 16

Fluoride

Sources - found widely in the environment, tea, fish, drinking water can be a good course, toothpaste and dental products

Function - formation of strong teeth, increase resistance to tooth decay

Deficiency - dental caries

Toxicity - Mottling and pitting of the teeth, increase bone density, calcification

8 of 16

Zinc

Sources - most foods

Functions - catalytic, structural, regulatory

Deficiency - growth retardation,fatigue

Toxicity - impaired Cu utilisations and impaired Ca absorption

9 of 16

Copper

Sources - Liver, legume, nuts

Functions - Part of many enzymes, bone health

Deficiency - Neutropenia, bone fractures, anaemia

Toxicity - Rare

10 of 16

Iodine

Source - fortified salt, seafood, seaweed

Functions - thyroid hormone synthesis (essential for normal growth and development), particularly foetal development

Deficiency - goitre (pressure on the windpipe, oesophagus and blood supply), hypothyrodydism (sleepiness, coldness, apathy, lack of energy, in pregnancy can cause miscarriages, still births), cretinism (hypothyroid; growth stunted, mental handicap; neurological; brain and neurological system damaged)

Toxicity - rare

11 of 16

Chromium

Source - Meat, liver, yeast, grains

Function - cofactor for insulin

Deficiency - glucose intolerance

Excess - Nausea, diarrhoea

12 of 16

Cobalt

Source - foods of animal origin

Function - part of vitamin B12

Deficiency - Pernicious anaemia

Toxicity - none

13 of 16

Molybdenum

Source - vegetable in alkaline, Mo rich soils

Function - cofactor

Deficiency - decrease urea production

14 of 16

Selenium

Source - Meat, green veg

Function - glutathione peroxidase

Deficiency - Cardio-myopathy

Excess - hair loss, dermatitis 

15 of 16

Silicon

Source - green vegetables

Function - bone formation and glycoprotein production

Deficiency - poor growth and collagen formation

Excess - rare

16 of 16

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar All resources:

See all All resources »See all Food and nutrition resources »