Minerals, vitamins and the consequences of deficiency on the body

  • Created by: livvvd26
  • Created on: 08-04-18 14:00

Mineral - Iron - Sources

Source:

  • liver 
  • meat
  • beans
  • nuts
  • dried fruit – such as dried apricots
  • wholegrains – such as brown rice
  • fortified breakfast cereals
  • soybean flour
  • most dark-green leafy vegetables – such as watercress and curly kale
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Mineral - Iron - Function

Function:

  • Production of red blood cells
  • Transporting oxygen around the body
  • Nutrients growth and repair
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Mineral - Iron - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Fatigue and lack of energy; anaemia 
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pale skin
  • Noticeable heartbeats (palpitations) 
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Mineral - Calcium - Sources

Sources: 

  • milk, cheese and other dairy foods
  • green leafy vegetables – such as broccoli, cabbage and okra, but not spinach
  • soya beans
  • tofu
  • soya drinks with added calcium
  • nuts
  • bread and anything made with fortified flour
  • fish where you eat the bones – such as sardines and pilchards
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Mineral - Calcium - Function

Function:

  • helping build strong bones and teeth
  • regulating muscle contractions, including heartbeat 
  • making sure blood clots normally
  • A lack of calcium could lead to a condition called rickets in children and osteomalacia or osteroporosis in later life.
  • Nerve transmission
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Mineral - Calcium - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • causes rickets 
  • weakened bones/bone deformities
  • especially in the legs/spine 
  • low bone density/ bones are not solid/small cavities/pores 
  • causes osteoporosis in females /females at high risk of fracturing bones easily 
  • impairment of muscle e.g. muscle contractions 
  • Nerve function  e.g. tingling/numbness 
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Mineral - Phosphorus - Sources

Source:

  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Fish
  • Beans 
  • Fruit
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Mineral - Phosphorus - Functions

Functions:

  • With Calcium, it builds bones and teeth 
  • Involved in reactions that turn chemcial energy from food to working and strong energy in muscles
  • Kidney function
  • Muscle contractions
  • Normal heartbeat
  • Nerve signaling
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Mineral - Phosphorus - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Rickets (in children)
  • Low bone density and osteoporosis
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Mineral - Iodine - Sources

Sources:

  • sea fish
  • shellfish
  • Iodine can also be found in plant foods, such as cereals and grains, but the levels vary depending on the amount of iodine in the soil where the plants are grown.
  • Milk
  • Green veg
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Mineral - Iodine - Function

Function:

  • Produce hormones in thyroid glands that control metabolism
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Mineral - Iodine - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Swollen thyroid and hypothyrodism
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Mineral - Zinc - Sources

Sources:

meat
shellfish
dairy foods – such as cheese
bread
cereal products – such as wheatgerm

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Mineral - Zinc - Function

Function:

  • Sperm production
  • making new cells and enzymes
  • processing carbohydrate, fat and protein in food
  • wound healing
  • Growth, blood clotting
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Mineral - Zinc - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Delayed body growth/development 
  • Loss of appetite 
  • Loss of hair/skin
  • Inflammation of the skin/skin problems
  • Weak immunity 
  • Poor wound healing
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Vitamin - A - Fat-Soluble - Sources

Sources:

  • cheese
  • eggs
  • oily fish
  • fortified low-fat spreads
  • milk and yoghurt
  • liver and liver products such as liver pâté – this is a particularly rich source of vitamin A, so you may be at risk of having too much vitamin A if you have it more than once a week (this is particularly important if you're pregnant)
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Vitamin - A - Fat-Soluble - Function

Function:

  • helping your body's natural defence against illness and infection (the immune system) work properly
  • helping vision in dim light
  • keeping skin and the lining of some parts of the body, such as the nose, healthy
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Vitamin - A - Fat-Soluble - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Night blindless; reduced hair growth in children; loss of appetite; dry rough skin; lowered resistance to infections; dry eyes
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Vitamin - D - Fat-Soluble - Sources

Sources:

  • Oily fish – such as salmon, sardines, herring, mackerel and fresh tuna
  • Red meat
  • Liver
  • Egg yolks
  • Fortified foods – such as most fat spreads (margarine) and some breakfast cereals
  • Exposure of the skin directly to the sun’s rays 
  • Another source of vitamin D is dietary supplements.In the UK, cows' milk is generally not a good source of vitamin D because it isn't fortified, as it is in some other countries.
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Vitamin - D - Fat-Soluble - Function

Function:

  • Vitamin D helps regulate the amount of calcium and phosphate in the body.
  • These nutrients are needed to keep bones, teeth and muscles healthy.
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Vitamin - D - Fat-Soluble - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone deformities such as rickets in children, and bone pain caused by a condition called osteomalacia in adults.
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Vitamin - E - Fat-Soluble - Sources

Sources:

  • plant oils – such as soya, corn and olive oil
  • nuts and seeds
  • wheatgerm – found in cereals and cereal products
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Vitamin - E - Fat-Soluble - Function

Function:

  • Vitamin E helps maintain healthy skin and eyes, and strengthen the body's natural defence against illness and infection (the immune system).
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Vitamin - E - Fat-Soluble - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Rare, it is seen primarily in premature or low weight babies or children who do not absorb fat properly
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Loss of muscle mass.
  • Abnormal eye movements.
  • Vision problems.
  • Unsteady walking.
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Vitamin - K - Fat-Soluble - Sources

Sources:

Vitamin K is found in:

  • green leafy vegetables – such as broccoli and spinach
  • vegetable oils
  • cereal grains
  • Small amounts can also be found in meat and dairy foods.
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Vitamin - K - Fat-Soluble - Function

Function:

  • Vitamin K is needed for blood clotting, which means it helps wounds heal properly.
  • There's also some evidence vitamin K may help keep bones healthy.
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Vitamin - K - Fat-Soluble - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Defective blood congulation
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Vitamin - B1 (Thiamine) - Sources

Sources:

  • Peas 
  • Fresh and dried fruit
  • Eggs
  • Wholegrain breads
  • Some fortified breakfast
  • Liver
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Vitamin - B1 (Thiamine) - Function

Function:

  • It breaks down and releases energy from food
  • Keeps the nervous system healthy
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Vitamin - B1 (Thiamine) - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Anxiety; hysteria; depression; muscle cramps; loss of appetite; in extreme cases beriberi (mostly in alcoholics)
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Vitamin - B1 (Thiamine) - Deficiency

Deficiency:

  • Anxiety; hysteria; depression; muscle cramps; loss of appetite; in extreme cases beriberi (mostly in alcoholics)
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Vitamin - B2 (Riboflavin) - Sources

Sources:

  • Milk
  • Eggs
  • Fortified breakfast cereals
  • Rice
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Vitamin - B2 (Riboflavin) - Function

Function:

  • Keep skin, eyes and the nervous system healthy
  • The body release energy from food
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Vitamin - B2 (Riboflavin) - Deficiency

Deficiency:

Cracks and sores around the mouth and nose; visual problems

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Vitamin - B3 (Niacin) - Sources

Sources:

  • Meat
  • Fish
  • Wheat flour
  • Eggs
  • Milk
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Vitamin - B3 (Niacin) - Function

Function:

  • Release energy from the foods we eat
  • Keep the nervous system and skin healthy
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Vitamin - B3 (Niacin) - Deficiency

Deficiency:

In extreme cases pellagra, a disease characterized  by dermatitis, diarrhea and mouth sores

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Vitamin - B9 (Folic Acid) - Sources

Sources:

  • Broccoli
  • Brussels sprouts
  • Liver (but avoid this during pregnancy)
  • Spinach
  • Asparagus
  • Peas
  • Chickpeas
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Vitamin - B9 (Folic Acid) - Function

Function:

  • the body form healthy red blood cells
  • reduce the risk of central neural tube defects such as spina bifida, in unborn babies
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Vitamin - B9 (Folic Acid) - Deficiency

Deficiency:

Impaired cell division; anemia; diarrhea; gastrointestinal upsets

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Vitamin - B12 (Cobalamin) - Sources

Sources:

  • Meat
  • Salmon
  • Cod
  • Milk
  • Cheese
  • Eggs
  • Some fortified breakfast cereals
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Vitamin - B12 (Cobalamin) - Function

Function:

  • Making red blood cells and keeping the nervous system healthy
  • Releasing energy from food
  • Using folic acid
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Vitamin - B12 (Cobalamin) - Deficiency

Deficiency:

Pernicious anemia; nerve damage

(Deficiency rare except in strict vegetarians, the elderly or people with malabsorption disorders.)

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Vitamin - C - Sources

Sources:

  • Oranges and orange juice
  • Red and green peppers
  • Strawberries
  • Blackcurrants
  • Broccoli
  • Brussel sprouts
  • Potatoes
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Vitamin - C - Function

Function:

  • Helping to protect cells and keep them healthy
  • Maintaing healthy skin, blood vessels bones and cartilage
  • Helping with wound healing
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Vitamin - C - Deficiency

Deficiency:

Muscle weakness, bleeding gums; easy bruising. In extreme cases, scurvy

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