Miller - Focal concerns

Subcultures

The lower class has its own independent subcultures with distinctive values which are different to the mainstream culture, which are responsible for criminal activity in urban areas. 

They attemot to achieve their own goals not mainstream ones. 

The subculture doesn't value success, so isn't frustrated by failure.

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Focal concerns

The focal cocerns of the lower class are different to the ones of the middle class, which are connected to educational success and gainining qualifications, whilst the working class are based on physical prowess and excitement. 

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Focal concerns part two

Six focal concerns of the lower class:

Fate e.g. luck - dealing drugs

Autonomy e.g. self-reliance - burglary

Toughness e.g. machismo - domestic violence

Excitment e.g. taking risks - illegal car racing

Smartness e.g. cunning - shoplifting

Trouble e.g. breaking the rules - illegal possession of guns

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