Milk, Cheese and Yoghurt



  • Milk comes from a variety of animals; in Britain we drink mainly cow's milk.
  • Fresh milk has a layer of cream on top.
  • Homogenised milk is forced through tiny holes in a machine. This breaks up the fat and disperses it, so it doesn't reform as a layer.
  • Lactose-intolerant people can substitute animal milk in their diet with milk made from soya, rice, coconut, almond or oats.
  • These milks don't contain lactose,
  • To make milk safe to consume it is heat-treated to kill any harmful bacteria.
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Types of milk

Using primary processing, milk is processed to produce a variety of different types:

  • Pasteurised - this extends shelf life.
  • Skimmed - this is pasteurised but has had all or most of the fat removed.
  • Semi-skimmed - this is pasteurised but it has had some of the fat removed.
  • Ultra-Heat Treated (UHT) - also known as 'long-life', this has a shelf life of up to 6 months.
  • Sterilised - this has a longer shelf-life, is homogenised and as a slightly caramel flavour.
  • Dried - does not need refrigeration until reconstituted; it's made by evaporating the water from the milk, which leaves a fine powder; it's non bulky to store.
  • Canned : - evaporated - milk that has had water evaporated off; it's sweet and concentrated,                                             homogenised and is sealed in cans and sterilised.                                                - condensed - evaporated milk that hasn't been sterilised; it has added sugar and is                                            very thick.


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Cheese 2


  • Contains protein of high biological value (HBV).
  • Can have a high fat content.
  • Good sourceof calcium, and will provide some phosphorous and sodium.
  • Contains vitamin A and some B group vitamins and vitamin D; this will vary depending on the cheese type.


  • Cheese must be stored in a refrigerator between 0 and 5*C.
  • Soft cheese can have a short shelf life so should be consumed quickly.
  • Hard-pressed types, e.g. cheddar, can be stored for longer. Cheese should be wrapped to prevent it drying out.
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  • Yoghurt is made from milk that has a friendly bacteria culture added to it. Different types of milk can be used to make yoghurt.
  • Flavourings, such as vanilla, fruits and sometimes sugar, are added to yoghurts.
  • Examples of different types of yoghurts include Greek, set and live yoghurts.
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Milk and Yoghurt nutrition and storage


  • Milk and yoghurt have a very similar nutritional content.
  • They contain protein of high biological value (HBV). The amount of fat will vary depending on the milk type.
  • Both milk and yoghurt contain carbohydrates as lactose (sugar).
  • Both milk and yoghurt provide vitamin A and some of the B group vitamins. Some milk is fortified with Vitamin D in the UK and can contain a small amount of vitamin C. Vitamin E can be found in whole-milk yoghurt.


  • Fresh milk must be stored in the refrigerator. It should not be consumed past the use-by date. 
  • Long life milks, e.g. UHT, can be stored in a cool, dry place until opened, then must be refrigerated and stored as fresh milk.
  • Yoghurt must be stored in the refrigerator and used within the use-by date.
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