- Created by: maiakilpatrickx
- Created on: 09-06-19 19:56
- Milk comes from a variety of animals; in Britain we drink mainly cow's milk.
- Fresh milk has a layer of cream on top.
- Homogenised milk is forced through tiny holes in a machine. This breaks up the fat and disperses it, so it doesn't reform as a layer.
- Lactose-intolerant people can substitute animal milk in their diet with milk made from soya, rice, coconut, almond or oats.
- These milks don't contain lactose,
- To make milk safe to consume it is heat-treated to kill any harmful bacteria.
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Types of milk
Using primary processing, milk is processed to produce a variety of different types:
- Pasteurised - this extends shelf life.
- Skimmed - this is pasteurised but has had all or most of the fat removed.
- Semi-skimmed - this is pasteurised but it has had some of the fat removed.
- Ultra-Heat Treated (UHT) - also known as 'long-life', this has a shelf life of up to 6 months.
- Sterilised - this has a longer shelf-life, is homogenised and as a slightly caramel flavour.
- Dried - does not need refrigeration until reconstituted; it's made by evaporating the water from the milk, which leaves a fine powder; it's non bulky to store.
- Canned : - evaporated - milk that has had water evaporated off; it's sweet and concentrated, homogenised and is sealed in cans and sterilised. - condensed - evaporated milk that hasn't been sterilised; it has added sugar and is very thick.
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- Contains protein of high biological value (HBV).
- Can have a high fat content.
- Good sourceof calcium, and will provide some phosphorous and sodium.
- Contains vitamin A and some B group vitamins and vitamin D; this will vary depending on the cheese type.
- Cheese must be stored in a refrigerator between 0 and 5*C.
- Soft cheese can have a short shelf life so should be consumed quickly.
- Hard-pressed types, e.g. cheddar, can be stored for longer. Cheese should be wrapped to prevent it drying out.
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- Yoghurt is made from milk that has a friendly bacteria culture added to it. Different types of milk can be used to make yoghurt.
- Flavourings, such as vanilla, fruits and sometimes sugar, are added to yoghurts.
- Examples of different types of yoghurts include Greek, set and live yoghurts.
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Milk and Yoghurt nutrition and storage
- Milk and yoghurt have a very similar nutritional content.
- They contain protein of high biological value (HBV). The amount of fat will vary depending on the milk type.
- Both milk and yoghurt contain carbohydrates as lactose (sugar).
- Both milk and yoghurt provide vitamin A and some of the B group vitamins. Some milk is fortified with Vitamin D in the UK and can contain a small amount of vitamin C. Vitamin E can be found in whole-milk yoghurt.
- Fresh milk must be stored in the refrigerator. It should not be consumed past the use-by date.
- Long life milks, e.g. UHT, can be stored in a cool, dry place until opened, then must be refrigerated and stored as fresh milk.
- Yoghurt must be stored in the refrigerator and used within the use-by date.
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