Milgrim Alternative research - Bickman
Bickman carried out a field study where an experimenter appraoched people on a city street and asked them to carry out small inconvenient tasks for example pick up a paper bag or give money to a stranger. The experimenter was dressed either as a milkman, civilian or a Guard. Bickman found that participants were twice as likely to obey the orders when the experimenter was dressed as a guard in uniform.
This supports Milgrim because the reserach shows that symbols of authority (in this case uniform) can effect weather or not an individual will obey.
In Milgrims study symbols of authority that made that participants more likely to obey included stuff like the experimenter wearing a white lab coat to convery his authority. And the experiment was conducted in a good university (Yale University)
Milgrims study was shown to be low in Ecological validity however Bickmans study shows that individuals will obey percieved authority in a real life setting.
(Always refer to reasearch)
Milgrim Alternative research - Hofling
Hofling conducted a study of obediance in a natural setting. Their participants were 22 nurses who were unaware that a study was taking place. The nurses received a phone callwhist they were workingfrom a 'Dr Smith', who instructed them to give 20mg of Astrophen to a patient on the ward. This was twice the maximun dose stated on the bottle, and could have been very harmful to the patient. However 21 out of 22 nurses attempted to give the medication. When 22 other nurses were asked what they would do, 21 of them said they would not give the medication it is was them.
This support Milgrim because it shows people will obey authority even though they command requires destructive behaviours.
- Nurses knew they were not meant to take orders over the phone, however majority of them still obeyed the command and the commant went against the reccomend dose stated on the bottle this could have severaly harmed a patient.
Milgrims study was critisized by being low in Ecological validity however again this shows that individuals will obey percieved authority in a real life setting even though the command required destructive behaviour.