Milgram Variation Studies

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Telephonic Instructions- Experiment 7

AIM:

  • Proximity of the experimenter- to see whether lack of physical presence of the experimenter would reduce obedience levels

METHOD:

  • At Yale University, the experimenter was not in the room; he gave orders over the telephone
  • However, the experimenter did give the initial instruction in person to create realism
  • If the participant refused to carry on, after 4 promps, the experimenter came back in

RESULTS:

  • When instructed and prompted over the phone, from a different room,obedience levels to the maximum voltage fell to 20.5%
  • Many cheated- missed out shocks/ gave lower ones 

CONCLUSION:

  • The proximity of authority figures affects obedience 
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Run Down Office Block - Experiment 10

AIM:

  • To investigate how the social setting affects obedience

METHOD:

  • Run down office in Bridgeport which had no association to Yale, sparsely furnished
  • If participants questioned professionalism, they were told it was a private firm conducting an experiment into industry

RESULTS:

  • 48% of participants continued up to the maximum voltage
  • 2 participants refused to give even the lowest shock
  • Behaviour was more relaxed

CONCLUSION:

  • Social setting does affect obedience, more complient in scientific/ formal setting 
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Ordinary Man Gives Orders- Experiment 13

AIM:

  • To test the role of authority and status on obedience

METHOD:

  • Experimenter had to leave the study, 1 confederate (timing and recorder) suggested how to carry out the study- didn't say order of pressing shocks or when to give them
  • 13a --> when real participant refuses, a 'bystander' takes over administering the shocks

RESULTS:

  • 20% obedience level up to maximum voltage
  • 13a --> all 16 protested, 68.75% obedience level- 11/16 to maximum shock
  • 5 used physical means such as unplugging the shock generator etc.

CONCLUSION:

  • Obedience is more passive when it's an authority figure 
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