Mid-Tudor Crisis & Religion

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 15-04-19 09:14

1. Non-Threatening Opposition (1532-1558)

Henry VIII:

- Northern Lords, Darcy & Hussey supported the POG after Mary I was excluded from the succession in 1536 (executed in 1537)

Western Rebellion 1549:

1. religious reforms of Book of Common Prayer of 1549 & banner of the 5 Wounds of Christ                                                                                                                                                 2. 13 out of 14 articles show rebels wanted restoration not reformation (wanted return of papal relics, 6 Articles of 1539 + rejected English Bible of 1547)

- not a dynastic threat + rebels were mostly concerned with socio-economic issues

Wyatt Rebellion 1554:

- rebels from Maidstone - Protestant stronghold + feared re-Catholicism (Protestant minority could no longer be ignored + Wyatt & chief supporters were executed for dynastic threat)

- vast majority of rebel followers were pardoned (Mary was given time to fortify the city of London - bridges were blocked + rebels failed to breac the walls)

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2. Widespread Support (1532-1558)

Reformation Parliament:

- In 1530, seven universities were favourable verdicts on Henry's case (the Collectanea Satis Copiosa aupported the concept of the king as head of state and church)

Kett Rebellion 1549:

- demanded further Protestant reform (daily services from the New Prayer Book conducted under the 'Tree of Reformation' on Mousehold Heath + wanted teaching of catechism)

- Bishop of Norwich, William Rudge was old and unsympathetic to radical reform (Norfolk had an anticlerical tradition and by 1547 was fertile ground for proactive reformation)

Mary I:

- Mary had become a symbol for Catholic resistance (refused to obey the ban on 'mass' and allowed to do so in private)

- 20th July, Council in London informed Northumberland they had proclaimed Mary Queen (celebrations for Mary + anger towards Northumberland)

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3. Threatening Opposition (1532-1558)

POG:

1. Dodd's argues that the POG aimed to reverse religious reforms (the Bishop's book of 1537 restored many of the desired conservative practices)                                                     2. 9 out of the 24 articles at Pontefract were religious, paraded under the banner of the 5 Wounds of Christ + occurred shortly after the dissolution of the smaller monasteries

- submitted to the demands of rebels (free parliament in the North + 1537 Bishops Book)

- 74 rebels hung in Carlisle + about 100 gentry leaders died (a small number considering the size of the rebellion) + pardon was given to all including many leaders

Mary I:

- 1555, Pope Paul IV removes Pole as papal legate, so he struggles with authority (pope Paul VI was also anti-Spanish and hostile towards Philip)

- Marian burnings began in 1555 (burned 289 Protestants + gov. began to ban servants, apprentices & the young from attending burnings after the creation of martyrs such as John Rogers) - Mary created more opposition than she prevented...

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1. Radically Protestant (1532 vs. 1553)

Henry VIII (described as 'watered down Catholicism'):

- Many of the Catholic practices remained despite the Break from Rome:                                 1. Transubstantiation                                                                                                                         2. Henry VIII's had previously defended the Catholic faith as 'fidei defensor'

- However, when John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester since 1504, refused to swear the oath accepting the divorce (executed in 1535 when Pope declared he would be made Cardinal)

Edward VI:

- 1547 Royal Injunctions radicalise Henrician reforms (Henry banned rosary but it was not enforced while Edward VI outlawed rosary completely)

- 1552, 42 Articles, produced without Parliamentary support as Edward was becoming (followed lines of catechisms published by Luther and Calvin)

Duffy refers to Somerset's relgious reform as a 'flood-tide of radicalism'...(more influenced by Edward's protestant ideas than Somerset)

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2. Largely Catholic (1532 vs. 1553)

POG:

1. Dodd's argues that the POG aimed to reverse religious reforms (the Bishop's book of 1537 restored many of the desired conservative practices)                                                     2. 9 out of the 24 articles at Pontefract were religious, paraded under the banner of the 5 Wounds of Christ + occurred shortly after the dissolution of the smaller monasteries

- submitted to the demands of rebels, granted free parliament in the North + 1537 Bishops Book (rebel force of 30,000 led by Robert Aske against Duke of Nortfolk's 8000)

Edward VI:

- 1549, Act of Uniformity: Book of Common Prayer is surprisingly moderate (English Bible replaced latin, Eucharist declaration had Catholic qualities of Transubstantiation, but also radically omitted the Elevation of the host)

Mary I:

- 20th July 1553, Council in London informed Northumberland they had proclaimed Mary Queen (Mary arrived in London to celebrations and widespread support from the Catholic majority)

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3. Ulterior Motives (1532 vs. 1553)

Henry VIII (described as 'watered down Catholicism'):

- Act of Annexing First Fruits and Tenths to the Crown in 1534                                                   1. Annates paid to the Bishop were now payable to the king                                                   2. religious policies no based on royal whim (dissolution of monasteries 1536-42)             3. increased financial burden on the clergy + strengthen royal authority

- Act of Succesion in 1534 meant Catherine's marriage was void & oath to swear allegiance to to the new queen and her offspring (treason to speak against the marriage)

The turn towards Protestantism was mainly to enforce Royal Supremacy + divorce...

Edward VI:

- 1547: Nov-Dec Chantries Act: dissolved chantries (Haigh questions if it was motivated financially to support foreign policy as clerical property was seized by the crown)

- 1552, Black Rubric Proclamation (further distanced from Catholicism - kneeling was not out of idolatory but for good, Edward influenced religion with personal beliefs)

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