Mid-Tudor Crisis & FP

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 14-04-19 17:54

Economic (1529-1558)

Henry VIII:

- peace with France agreed in 1546 as Henry was unable to fund his war with extraordinary revenue (he had sold much of the crown estate, borrowed large sums, debased the coinage - seriously increasing the rate of inflation)

Edward VI:

- 25 garrisons were established under Somerset + 14 planned (spent £580,000 on garrisons in two years + debased the coinage - almost double Henry's 5 year campaign)

- Northumberland returned Boulogne for peace + improvement in the crown's financial position (Boulogne had been a drain on resources + was substituted with a substantial sum of £133,333)

- Financial troubles due to foreign policy led to rebellons in 1549...

Mary I:

- Calais' capture in 1557 was economically crippling (lost for the first time since 1347 within 3 weeks) - also pressured to fianance Philip's naval + military war with France...

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Aggressive Action (1529-1558)

Henry VIII:

- When the Treaty of Greenwich failed, Henry ordered the Earl of Hertford to carry out a punitive raid on Edinburgh, Leith & St Andrews (retaliation simply antagonised the Scots further)

- Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 (Scottish forced stopped by the Earl of Surrey + many of the Scottish nobility + James IV killed, neutralising the threat until 1540's)

Edward VI:

- Battle of Pinkie in 1547 demonstrated successful military action (agressive policy ultimately cemented the French-Scottish alliance)

- arrival of 10,000 french troops in June 1548 made the garrison system unworkable + garrions were abandonned (financial benefit outweighed the threat of the French-Scottish alliance)

Mary I:

- War began well due to victory at St Quentin in 1557 (Philip failed to take advantage, halting for the winter to replenish hsi forces + allowed the French to do the same - Calais)

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Diplomatic Negotiations (1529-1558)

Henry VIII:

- Treaty of Greenwich in 1543 suggested that Henry's 'rough wooing' had succeeded (however, Earl of Arran soon deserted the English cause + Scottish parliament refused to ratify the treaty)

Henry is criticised for not heeding Sadler's warnings of Scottish suspicion...

Edward VI:

- Francis I signed a defensive treaty with Somerset in 1547 (as the French had failed to recapeture Boulogne)

- Unfortunately Francis died shortly after the treaty + replaced by Henry II (he saw the treaty as weak + repudiated it - demanding the return of Boulogne & Calais)

Mary I:

- Mary I attempted to remain aloof in European politics (she feared French intervention)

- in 1555 she attempted to be a mediator between France & Spain (however, Spain refused to return Milan + France refused to return Verdun - Treaty of Vaucelles ended in 1556)

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Economic (1547-1563)

Edward VI:

- 25 garrisons were established under Somerset + 14 planned (spent £580,000 on garrisons in two years + debased the coinage - almost double Henry's 5 year campaign)

- Northumberland returned Boulogne for peace + improvement in the crown's financial position (Boulogne had been a drain on resources + was substituted with a substantial sum of £133,333)

- Financial troubles due to foreign policy led to rebellons in 1549...

Mary I:

- Calais' capture in 1557 was economically crippling (lost for the first time since 1347 within 3 weeks) - also pressured to fianance Philip's naval + military war with France...

Elizabeth:

- 3/4 of England's overseas trade pased through Antwerp - over 3/4 on woollen cloth (Antwerp businessmen were unhappy with Mary's Book of Rates which increased import duties by 75%)                                                                                                                              1. First Trade embargo began in 1563

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Aggressive Action (1547-1563)

Edward VI:

- Battle of Pinkie in 1547 demonstrated successful military action (agressive policy ultimately cemented the French-Scottish alliance)

- arrival of 10,000 french troops in June 1548 made the garrison system unworkable + garrions were abandonned (financial benefit outweighed the threat of the French-Scottish alliance)

Mary I:

- War began well due to victory at St Quentin in 1557 (Philip failed to take advantage, halting for the winter to replenish hsi forces + allowed the French to do the same - Calais)

Elizabeth I:

- In 1562, France is engulfed by Civil War (leading families of Guise & Bourbon were divided over religion)                                                                                                                              1. Treaty of Hampton Court in 1562 agreed to send aid to the Hugenots                              2. Hugenots are badly defeated in 1563 + disappointed with English support (Hugenots join Catholics to drive out the English in + Treaty of Troyes 1564 sees French capture Calais)

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Diplomatic Negotiations (1547-1563)

Edward VI:

- Francis I signed a defensive treaty with Somerset in 1547 (as the French had failed to recapeture Boulogne)                                                                                                                      1. Francis died shortly after the treaty + replaced by Henry II                                                2. Henry II saw the treaty as weak + repudiated it - demanding Boulogne & Calais

Mary I:

- Mary I attempted to remain aloof in European politics - she feared French intervention.                                                                                                                                         1. in 1555 she attempted to be a mediator between France & Spain (however, Spain refused to return Milan + France refused to return Verdun - Treaty of Vaucelles ended in 1556)

Elizabeth I:

- At first, Philip wishes to maintain relations by offering marriage + preventing the Pope from excommunicating Elizabeth                                                                                                    1. Cecil's Treaty of Berwick in 1560 + led to the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560 (French withdrawed from Scotland + leaving Protestant government under James Stuart)              2. James recieved £4000 annual pension to ensure political independence from France

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