- Good supplies of vitamin K are found in green leafy vegatables: green peas, beans and broccoli. also in vegatable oils and cereals.
- Small amounts of vitamin K are found in red meat & milk.
- Vitamin K is made by bacteria in the small intestine.
FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN K
- Vitamin K is involved in the production of clotting factors, and because it is required for blood clotting, it also helps wounds to heal properly.
- It is important for bone health- increases bone density and prevents osteoporosis.
SYMPTOMS OF A DEFICIENCY
- Deficency is rare as vitamin k is manufactured in the body. Signs of deficency include- tendency to bruise easily, and bleeding as it may take longer to clot.
- newborns are at risk of developing a condition asssociated with lack of vitamin K. VKDB (Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding). Three factors may contribute to this condition... 1) during pregnancy, not enough vitamin K will reach the baby through the placenta. 2) Breast milk contains low vitamin K 3)inadequate supply of bacteria in the intestines of newborns.
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
here is little evidence to to draw a conclusion on the effects on taking high doses of vitamin K suppliaments each day
Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin which is stable when heated over 100 degrees Celsius, but very sensitive to sunlight. B12 is also known as CYANOCOBALAMIN and COBALAMIN
SOURCES OF B12
- its found mostly in animal products: eggs, shellfish, poultry, meat, dairy produce and liver. None is veg
- Lacto vegetarians must consume dairy products to achieve the adequate supply and vegans should consume cerials fortified with vitamins B12 or tempeh.
FUNCTIONS OF VITAMIN B12
- is used in the metabolism of fats, proteins and carbohydrates for cell growth.
- it is involved in the metabolism of folic acid and the maintenance of the nervous system
- B12 is needed for the manufacture of red blood cells and supports the immune system.
SYMPTOMS OF A DEFICENCY
A deficiency is known as pernicious anaemia, which is most commonly found in elderly or vegans. Symptoms of this include tiredness and fatigue, tingling and numbness in hands and feet, loss of memory, chest pain and confusion. It can take several years for these symptoms to develop and can be easily treated when caught promptly. It can also cause inflammation of the nerves and mental deterioration.
SYMPTOMS OF EXCESS
Excess B12 is stored in the liver and is excreted in urine each day so there are no known harmful effects.
calcium and phosphorus account for 75% of the mineral elements in the body. Calcium is particularly needed in times of growth such as, childhood, adolescence, pregnancy and lactation.
SOURCES OF CALCIUM
calcium is found in most dairy products. It is also found in white and brown flour in england so, every loaf of bread is an important source of calcium. Also found in some vegetables such as broccoli, fish where the bones are eaten, almonds, brazil nuts, pulses and soya products.
ABSORPTION OF CALCIUM
calcium is easily absorbed from milk and dairy products because...
- Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium
- when protien is broken down into aminoacids during the digestive process, it combines with calcium to form calcum salts which are easily absorbed.
- lactose increases the calcium absorption
Calcium is less easily absorbed from plant food because...
- the calcium may be bound by phytates found in whole grain cereals and pulses, and oxalates found in spinach and rhubarb
- fibre also binds calcium
- saturated fatty acids form insoluble soaps with calcium.
FUNCTIONS OF CALCIUM
- calcium is the main part of hydroxyapatite, the principle mineral essential for building and maintaining healthy bones and teeth.
- calcium is also needed for the contraction of the muscles including regular beating of the heart and for nerve function.
- it is involved in blood clotting
- it is needed for the activity of several enzymes
Symptoms of a deficiency
Symptoms of a deficiency include muscle aches, pains, cramps, twitching, spasm and reduced bone density.
Vitamin D is essential for proper absorption of calcium. Too little calcium can cause stunted growth in kids and rickets. And in adults too little calcium can result in osteomalacia. Causing softening and weakening of the bones- tendency to fractures. Older women are more prone to osteoporosis.
Symptoms of excess
high intakes of vitamin D can cause calcium to be deposited in the soft tissues of the body causing hypercalcameia. In which the symptoms are loss of apetite, nausea, vomiting, thirst and alternating diarrhoea and constipation.
magnesium is preesent in all tissues including bone, where it is presant as magnesium phosphate
Sources of Magnesium
magnesium is present in most foods especially those which are in the vegetable origin.