Cowpe: Chip-apn fire prevention
Aim: to test effectiveness of an advertising campaign which demostrated a procedure, provided infomation about chip-pan fires
Methodology: - a quasi experiment where a media campaign in ten UK regional tele areas - An analysis of the number of chip-pan fires reported between 1976 and 1982 - plus two quantitative consumer surveys
Participants: people living in the television areas
Procedure: the campaigns were shown on tele through 60 secs adverts. One called 'inattendance' and one called 'overfilling'. Ads showed the inital cause of the fire and the actions required to put it out. Three areas shown reminders a year after.
Findings: - Decline in each aera (7%) - Largest reduction during the campaign - If an area recieved more than advert the campaign had less of an effect - Questionnaire showed increase in awarness
Conclusions: Ads proved effective - change in behaviour during campaign then reduces - less effective if over-exposed.
Dannenberg et al: Bicycle helmet laws and educatio
Aim: to review the impact of passing of a law requiring cycle helmet wearing in children
Method: natural experiement when laws in Howard County, Maryland, USA requiring children less than 16 to wear safety helments
Participants: children from 47 schools - 7322 were sent questionnaires - two control groups
Design: Independent measures
Procedure: questionnaires containing likert-scales sent out. The topics included bike use, helmet ownership and use. Parents were asked to help children complete questionnaires so concent obtained.
Findings: (P's were asked about use 1 year previously and on their most recent bike ride) -Helmet wearing had increased more than the two other control groups - Most children were aware of the law and roughly 40% had worn their helemt on their last ride.
Conclusions: Although chidlren did not routinely wear helmet the legislation did show a large increase. We might conclude that passing legislation has more effect than educational campaigns alone
Janis and Freshbach: Effects of fear arousal
Aim: to investigate the consequences on emotions and behaviour of fear appeals in communications
Method: lab experiment, which showed fear-arousing material and then collected data by questionnaires
Participants: An entire 9th grade class from a US high school aged 14-15 divided into 4 conditions
Design: Independent measures (group 1 = stong fear-arousal etc.)
Procedure: A questionnaire was given out on week before. The P's had a 15 minute lecture aand then immediatelty filled out a questionnaire. One week later a follow-up questionnaire was completed about long-term effects of the lecture.
Findings: -The amount of dental hygiene did not differ between groups - Strong fear appeal was most interesting but showed least conformity - minimal fear appeal most conformity
Conclusion: Fear appeal can be effective in changing behaviour but it is important that the level of fear appeal is right for each audience. Strong fear appeal caused the most positive feedback so could be used in charity.