Methods and Principles of Training - PE

Methods of Training - Continuous, Interval, Fartlek, Circuit, Weight/ Resistance.

Principles of Training - SPORTIR and FITT

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 22-03-11 19:58

Interval Training

Interval Training

  • Alternate between high and low intensity training
  • Periods of recovery/rest
  • 400m fast jog, 200m slow jog, 400m fast jog, 200m slow jog etc.


  • Sprinters
  • Middle distance runners (1500m)


  • Anaerobic exercise (without oxygen)
  • Therefore you become less reliant on oxygen.
  • Aerobic work becomes easier
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Continuous Training

Continuous Training

  • Work for a long time without rest
  • Continuous pace (steady state)
  • Eg. at least 30 minute run over consistent terrain.


  • Long distance runner
  • Games player who plays for a long time (eg. Footballer)


  • Aerobic exercise supplies enough oxygen to the working muscles
  • Aerobic exercise improves your CV fitness
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Fartlek Training

Fartlek Training

  • Variation of speed and terrain.
  • Run, walk or cycle.
  • Run up and down steps/ sprint at 50% speed, 75% then 100% speed.


  • Games person (football, rugby etc)
  • Any person who has to be able to change pace/direction.


  • Improves both anaerobic and aerobic fitness.
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Circuit Training

Circuit Training

  • Performing a set of exercises specific to sport/component of fitness.
  • Different activity at each station


  • Any type of performer


  • It can be easily adapted to suit anyone
  • Can be designed to improve agility, balance, speed, muscular endurance etc.
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Weight/ Resistance Training

Weight/ Resistance Training

  • Using weights to build up muscles
  • Improves muscular endurance (high reps, low weight)
  • Improves muscular strength (low reps, high weight)


  • Boxers, Rugby players - anyone in contact sports who needs to be strong.


  • Improves muscular endurance, strength and power.
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Principles of Training - SPORTIR

S - Specificity

P - Progressive

O - Overload

R - Rest/ Recovery

T - Threshold

I - Individual Needs

R - Reversibility

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Matching training to requirement of your activity

Swimmers would train in water whereas footballers would train on grass.

Improves only the muscle groups necessary

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Gradual increase of training intensity

Improves fitness without risk of injury

If you don't progress, you will not improve your fitness - no challenge

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Training harder than you normally do

Linked with Progressive

You shouldn't overload too fast or you risk injuries

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Rest/ Recovery

You need rest in order for your muscles to recover

When you work your muscles, the fibres rip.

When you rest, they repair, making them stronger.

Without rest, they wouldnt have enough time to repair themselves.

You can risk injury if you over-work yourself.

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Training within your target zone

Max Heart Rate: 220 - age

Aerobic Threshold: (220 - age) x 60-80%

Anaerobic Threshold: (220 - age) x 80+%

Below 60%, you do not improve fitness.

Be sure to train at the correct threshold for your sport.

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Individual Needs

Make sure that your training is relevant to your age, gender, ability

A 30 year old male professional athlete would have a different training programme to a 15 year amateur girl.

Doing a training session above your fitness level can cause injury.

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If you stop training, you lose any progress you have made.

Taking a long break or not training often enough reverses any positive adaptations made.

However, you should still limit the amout you do - too much can cause injury.

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F - Frequency: How often you train

I - Intensity: How hard you train

T - Time - How long you train for

T - Type - The type of activity you are doing

To increase fitness, you should increase at least one of these gradually over your training programme.

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