Methodology for cognitive approach

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  • Created by: Lollipop
  • Created on: 09-01-13 19:56



  • Artifical setting
  • Most scientific - most controlled
  • IV manipulated by researcher
  • Experimental and control conditions
  • Participants randomly assigned to groups

 - good controls - draw cause and effect conclusions

- not ecologically valid - articfical setting


  • Natural setting
  • Many controls in place
  • IV manipulated
  • Experimental and control conditions
  • Participants randomly assigned to groups

- Ecological validity - natural setting

- hard to control - natural setting so less valid and replicable


  • Natural setting
  • IV not manipulated
  • Participants naturally belong to groups
  • Little controls

- Ecological valididty - natural setting

- Hard to control as IV occurs naturally and experimenter effects can't be controlled

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Participant Designs

Repeated measures - same participants in all conditions

  • Participant variables controlled
  • Order effects possible - no counterbalancing and demand charateristics possible

Independent Groups - different participants in each group

  • No order effects
  • Participant variables affect reuslts - different participants used

Matched Pairs - different particpants in each condition but matched on a characteristic

  • No order effects
  • Participant variables affect results - different people used
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IV - manipulated - what is being tested

DV - measured - what is being measured

IV+DV operationalised - more testable and measurable - how to measure DV and alter conditions of IV

EV - affects results so need to be controlled

PV - age, gender, mood, experience

SV - temperature, noise, distractions and light

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Variables need to be controlled so only IV affects DV

Experimenter Effects - cues and signals e.g. tone of voice and affect responses

Reduced by:

  • Double blind techniques - participants and experimenter didn't no groups and purpose of study
  • Single blind - participants don't no groups and purpose if study
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Order Effects

Order effects affect results in repeated measures design e.g. practice and fatigue

Minimised by:

  • Counterbalancing - researhcer alternates condition order for each participant
  • Randomisation - participants randomly assigned to a condition order

Always more than one condition

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Specific Testable Predicition

Experimental - what is expected

Null - difference due to chance

Directional - direction predicted - better recall

Non directional - no direction -affect recall

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