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metals of low reactivity

unreactive metaks like gold and silver are often found as pure elements, these are said to be found native 

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Reactive metals

the more reactive the metal is, the more difficult it is to extract from its ore. 

Ore - a rock that is chemically bonded to other elements like oxygen and suphur 

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Displacement reaction

a displacement reaction is when a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound 

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Reduction and Oxidation

  • reduction is when a substances loses oxygen 
  • oxidation is when a sunstance gains oxygen 
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Raw materials in the blast furnace

Iron ore - a source of iron 

Coke - a fuel that makes carbon monoxide ( a cheap source of carbon made from              coal )

Limestone - used to remove any impurities 

Hot air is blasted into the bottom of th furnace 

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Reactions in the blast furnace

1. carbon + oxygen --> carbon dioxide                                                                           C         +  O2        -->  CO2

2. carbon dioxide + carbon --> carbon monoxide                                                           CO2                 +   C       --> 2 CO

3. iron oxide + carbon monoxide --> iron + carbon dioxide                                             Fe2O3     +  3CO                    --> Fe2 +  3 CO2

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Electrolysis is the breaking - down of a substance by passing electricity throught it 

Electrolysis only works when compounds are molten or dissolved. The ions in the compound have to be free to move in order to carry the electricity 

The lighid you pass the electricity through is called electrolyte 

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Anode and Cathode

Positive ions are attracted to the negative electrode called the cathode

Negative ions are attracted to the possitive electrode called the anode

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aluminium is obtained from its ore bauxite 

to save enerygy you mix aluminium oxide with cryolite, this lowers the melting point, therefore less energy is needed to melt it saving money

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Aluminium reaction

aluminium oxide --> aluminium + oxygen                                                                        2 Al203           -->  4 AL        +  3 O2


aluminium ions + electrons --> aluminium metal                                                             Al3+            +  3e          -->  Al


oxygen ion - electrons --> neutral oxygen molecules                                                  2 O2-       -  4e           -->   O2

oxygen gas reacts with the carbon anode making carbon dioxide gas. This causes the carbon anode to ware away

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Aluminium extraction plant

  • large reliable electricity source
  • an available workforce
  • good transport links
  • near the docks
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Aluminium properties and uses

  • aeroplanes ( low density ) 
  • overhead power lines ( good conductor or electricity ) 
  • food containers anf foil ( non toxic ) 
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Environmental Problems

1. Quarrying ( produces lots of dust, very noisy, scares landscapes 

2. Using energy ( extracting metals from their ores uses up a huge amount of                                     electricity, electricity is very expensive ) 

3. Greenhouse effect ( rocks release carbon dioxide which adds to the greenhouse                                      effect increasing global warming )

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Recycling Aluminium

  • we only have a certain amount of rock that contains metal. recycling helps us to protect the rocks we have left
  • the metal that would have been thrown away would also take up lots of space in our landfill sites 
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  • Bottom of pans ( good conductor of heat ) 
  • water pipes ( does not react with water ) 
  • electrical wires ( good conductor of electricity )  
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  • extremely dense 
  • very strong 
  • withstand very high temperatures
  • non corrsive 
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nanoscience involves the study and use of particles that have sizes in the range 1-100nm ( nanometres ) 

nanosized materials have different properties to the same material at a larger scale. This means that nanosized materials have new uses 

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uses of nanoscience

dress plaster ( anti bacterial, viral and fungicide ) 

sun-screen ( more effective at blocking the suns rays ) 

self cleaning glass ( dirt breaks in the sunlight and is washed away by rainfall , the glass is hydrophobic ) 

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Advantages and Disadvantages of nanoscience

A -- nanosize materials have different properties                                                              old materials now have new uses

D -- their long term effect are as yet unknown. They could be harmful

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