Some revision cards containing all the metals information for the AQA C1 syllabus :)

HideShow resource information

Metals, their reactivity and ores

  • An ore is something, usually a compound, which contains enough metal so that it is economically viable to extract.
  • Gold is found native in the Earth's crust.
  • Most metals are found in the Earth's crust as compounds.
  • The reactivity series controls the method used to extract a metal from its ore
  • The reactivity series is:- Potassium, Sodium, Lithium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, Carbon, Zinc, Iron, Tin, Lead, Copper, Silver, Gold, Platinum
  • Displacement, smelting and electrolysis are used to extract metals.
1 of 9

Extracting Iron

  • A blast furnace is used to extract iron.
  • Iron is extracted from iron oxide.
  • This is a displacement reaction, but it is also a reduction reaction, because carbon displaces the iron and the oxygen is removed.
  • Carbon and oxygen are needed for the reaction.
2 of 9


  • Pure iron is very brittle and the layers of atoms slide over each other easily.
  • Steel is the name given to an alloy of iron.
  • Stainless steel is used for cutlery and is hard, strong an corrosion resistant.
  • Low ally tungsten steel is used for high speed drills and works well at high temperatures.
  • Low alloy nickel steel is used for bridges and is resistant to stretching.
  • High carbon steel is used for hammers and is very strong.
  • High alloy chromium steel is used for chemical reaction vessels and is chemically stable.
  • Low carbon steel is used for car bodies and bends easily, as well as being hard to shatter.
3 of 9


  • An alloy is made up of 2 or more metals and uses the properties of each to its advantage.
  • Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and is strong. It is used to make many items e.g. musical instruments, door knockers etc.
  • Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin and is strong and hardwearing.
  • White gold is an alloy of gold and nickel and is hard and strong. It is used for jewellery.
  • Pink gold is an alloy of gold and copper and looks attractive. It is used in jewellery.
4 of 9

Transition metals

  • Transition metals are found in the middle of the periodic table, between groups 2 and 3.
  • Some common transition metals are gold (Au), titanium (Ti), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and platinum (Pt).
  • Transition metals are good thermal and electrical conductors, ductile, malleable and sonorous.
  • Copper wires are used because copper is a good conductor of electricity.
  • Transition metals are used to maake saucepans because they are good conductors of heat.
  • Tinfoil is made with transition metals because they are ductile.
5 of 9

Extraction and Purification of copper

  • Copper is a good electrical conductor so is useful for wiring.
  • It has a high resistance to corrosion so is useful for pipes in plumbing.
  • In electrolysis of copper, there are several points:


    • An electric current is passed through the copper compound (usually copper sulphate) via two carbon electrodes.
    • Positive copper ions move to the negative electrode and form pure copper.
    • Negative sulphur ions move to the positive electrode and sulphur gas is released.
6 of 9

Advantages: Recycling Metals

  • Provides jobs and income
  • Saves energy
  • Produces less air pollution
  • Leads to improvement of facilities
  • Less pressure on the environment
  • Less use of limited resources
  • Enables us to do and make great things
  • Provides materials for industry
7 of 9

Disadvantages: Recycling Metals

  • Creates objects which are hard to destroy
  • Destroys landscape
  • Depends on support from people and available facilities
  • Causes loss of tourism
  • Causes noise, visual, dust and traffic pollution
  • Relies on collection of materials
8 of 9

Aluminium and titanium

  • Both these metals are light, strong, resistant to corrosion and good conductors of heat and electricity.
  • Cans, cooking foil, aeroplanes and power cables are made from aluminium.
  • Aircraft, nuclear reactors, racing bikes and hip replacements are made from titanium.
  • Aluminium is extracted from its ore by electrolysis.
  • Titanium is extracted by displacement with carbon, sodium or magnesium.
  • Both methods use electrolysis (sodium and magnesium are extracted in this way) so a lot of energy and money is used up.
9 of 9


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all Rocks, ores, metals and alloys resources »